Recombinant Human TRXR1 Protein (aa 161-647, His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-4685

Recombinant Human TRXR1 Protein (aa 161-647, His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-4685
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Human
Accession Q16881
Synonym GRIM-12, TR, TR1, TRXR1, TXNR
Background Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) which is a selenocysteine-containing protein is overexpressed in many malignancies. TXNRD1 plays a key role in regulating cell growth and transformation, and protects cells against oxidative damage. We investigated the association between TXNRD1 polymorphisms and ATDH susceptibility. Moreover, TXNRD1 is an essential selenium-containing enzyme involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox signaling. And genetic variations in TXNRD1 favor the development of Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), which is the most common adverse drug reaction.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human TXNRD1 isoform 1 (Q16881-1) (Tyr 161-Cys 647) was expressed, with a His tag at the N-terminus.
Source E.coli
Predicted N Terminal Met
AA Sequence Tyr 161-Cys 647
Molecular Weight The recombinant human TXNRD1 consisting of 498 a.a. and has a calculated molecular mass of 55 kDa. It migrates as an 60 kDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions as predicted.
Purity >90% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin Please contact us for more information.
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile PBS, pH 7.4.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
Subcellular Location Cytoplasm.; [Isoform 4]: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.; [Isoform 5]: Cytoplasm.
Protein Families Class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family
Database References
Tissue Specificity Isoform 1 is expressed predominantly in Leydig cells (at protein level). Also expressed in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney and pancreas and in a number of cancer cell lines. Isoform 4 is widely expressed with highest levels in kidney, testis, uterus,

Gene Functions References

  1. this study shows that miR-125a suppressed TrxR1 expression by targeting its 3'-UTR in endothelial cells PMID: 30225271
  2. In human colonic epithelial cells, significant upregulation of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (up to threefold) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (up to twofold) by 10muM sulforaphane (from broccoli), 5muM carnosol (rosemary), and 20muM cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) was observed. PMID: 28688915
  3. These results suggest that TrxR1 suppresses anabolic metabolism and adipogenesis by inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways downstream of insulin stimulation. PMID: 27346647
  4. However, Ethaselen can induce a high level of ROS in K562/CDDP by TrxR activity inhibition and increased ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in K562/CDDP by nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) suppression, which subsequently induces the release of cytochrome c in K562/CDDP. This response is partly responsible for the reversal of the cisplatin resistance in K562/CDDP cells. PMID: 28471109
  5. Multivariate analysis found TXNRD1 was an independent prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)patients. In conclusion, our data suggested that TXNRD1 was a biomarker for the prognosis of patients with HCC. PMID: 28536696
  6. Mechanistic study uncovers for the first time that the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is one of the targets by which PL-CL promotes the ROS generation PMID: 27233942
  7. Endogenous TrxR1 is sensitive to nitrosylation-dependent inactivation. PMID: 27377780
  8. This study thus provides novel insights into the catalytic mechanisms of TrxR1. One-electron juglone reduction by TrxR1 producing superoxide should furthermore contribute to the well-known prooxidant cytotoxicity of juglone PMID: 26898501
  9. Mutation of TXNRD1 was identified in a family with genetic generalized epilepsy. PMID: 28232204
  10. Data show that small molecule B19 targets and inactivates thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in gastric cancer cells. PMID: 26919094
  11. High TRXR1 expression is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 28653098
  12. Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase-1 by brevetoxin-2 is via the formation of a Michael adduct between selenocysteine and the alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde moiety of the toxin. PMID: 28551108
  13. Here, the authors use a novel assay to demonstrate that the reduction in non-native disulfides requires NADPH as the ultimate electron donor, and a robust cytosolic thioredoxin system, driven by thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1 or TXNRD1). PMID: 28093500
  14. Taken together, these findings indicate that auranofin inhibition of TrxR activity in Hep3B cells activates ROS- and caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling pathways and triggers cancer cell death. PMID: 28218611
  15. It was observed that the combination of redox/protonation states of the N-terminal (FAD and Cys59/64) and C-terminal (Cys497/Selenocysteine498) redox centers defines the preferred relative positions and allows for the flexible arm to work as the desired electron "shuttle." PMID: 27667125
  16. Our results clearly demonstrate that DIMC can synergistically enhance the cancer cell killing when combined with radiation by targeting thioredoxin system. PMID: 27381867
  17. thioredoxin reductase is inhibited by plumbagin, which leads to apoptosis in HL-60 cells PMID: 28249720
  18. TXNRD1 variants may favor anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity susceptibility in females and nonsmokers. PMID: 27706680
  19. Our findings demonstrate that elevated TrxR1 levels correlate with the acquisition of bortezomib resistance in MM. We propose considering TrxR1-inhibiting drugs, such as auranofin, either for single agent or combination therapy to circumvent bortezomib-resistance and improve survival outcomes of MM patients. PMID: 26743692
  20. Cardamonin exposure and selenium availability regulate expression of HO-1, GPX2 and TrxR1 in human intestinal cells. PMID: 26698667
  21. Under the conditions of inhibition of TrxRs in cells, Parthenolide (PTL) does not cause significant alteration of cellular thiol homeostasis, supporting selective target of TrxRs by PTL. Importantly, overexpression of functional TrxR1 or Trx1 confers protection, whereas knockdown of the enzymes sensitizes cells to PTL treatment. PMID: 27002142
  22. TXNRD1_v1 and TXNRD1_v2 have distinct roles in differentiation, possibly by altering the expression of the genes associated with differentiation, and further emphasize the importance in distinguishing each unique action of different TrxR1 splice forms PMID: 26464515
  23. Tissue microarrays containing human nevi and melanomas were used to evaluate levels of the antioxidant protein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1), which was found to increase as a function of disease progression. PMID: 26184858
  24. Rheumatoid arthritis patients with high disease activity had significantly elevated TrxR levels in plasma and synovial fluid than did those with low disease activity. PMID: 26871773
  25. TRX-1/PRX-1 levels are associated with NADPH oxidase-activity in vivo and in vitro in atherosclerosis. PMID: 26117319
  26. It seems to be involved in the malignant progression of meningiomas. PMID: 25592259
  27. The association of TXNRD1 variability was found with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979) associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age. PMID: 26064428
  28. In gene-based analysis of Se metabolism and selenoprotein candidate genes, only thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) was significantly associated with toenail Selenium levels. [meta-analysis] PMID: 25343990
  29. Expression of TrxR1 correlated highly with both the astrocytoma grade and proliferative index PMID: 25391969
  30. Thioredoxin reductase activity may be more important than GSH level in protecting human lens epithelial cells against UVA light. PMID: 25495870
  31. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) protein levels and activity were inducible up to 2.2-fold by selenium. PMID: 25179160
  32. Data suggest TXNRD1 and TXRNRD2 function at the top of a redox pyramid that governs the oxidation state of peroxiredoxins and other protein factors, thereby dictating a hierarchy of phenotypic responses to oxidative insults. PMID: 24624337
  33. Targeting TrxR1 with shikonin thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of shikonin and provides an in-depth insight into the action of shikonin in the treatment of cancer. PMID: 24583460
  34. Targeting of TrxR1 by GA thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological action of GA and provides useful information for further development of GA as a potential agent in the treatment of cancer. PMID: 24407164
  35. Sec-containing TrxR1 is absolutely required for self-sufficient growth of MEFs under high-glucose conditions, owing to an essential importance of this enzyme for elimination of glucose-derived H2O2. PMID: 24853413
  36. The oxidoreductase activities of TRP14 thereby complement those of Trx1 and must therefore be considered for the full understanding of enzymatic control of cellular thiols and nitrosothiols. PMID: 24778250
  37. These findings suggest that high levels of TrxR may be related to progression of glioblastoma multiforme PMID: 23512591
  38. Increased sperm TR expression might be a defense mechanism against apoptosis in the spermatozoa of men with varicocele. PMID: 23603921
  39. v3 is an intricately regulated protein that expands TXNRD1-derived protein functions to the membrane raft compartment PMID: 23413027
  40. Data suggest that dietary factor (selenium supplementation) up-regulates endogenous antioxidant systems and protects trophoblasts from oxidative stress; selenium upregulates GPX1 (glutathione peroxidase 1) and thioredoxin reductases (TXNRD1; TXNRD2). PMID: 23063346
  41. Our study suggests a novel interaction of up-regulated TXN-TXNRD1 system-mediated oxidative stress defense mechanisms and down-regulated angiogenesis pathways as an adaptive response in obese nondiabetic subjects. PMID: 21593104
  42. study reveals significant differences between TrxR1 and TrxR2 in substrate specificity and metal compound inhibition in vitro and in cells PMID: 21172426
  43. Overexpression of TrxR1 could contribute to cancer progression and might be a potential molecular marker for therapy. PMID: 21206984
  44. These results indicate the ability of TR1 to modulate the cytotoxic effects of selenium compounds in human lung cancer cells through mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID: 20920480
  45. High expression of TXNRD1 is associated with breast cancer. PMID: 20584310
  46. High levels of expression in lung carcinoma cells modulate drug-specific cytotoxic efficacy PMID: 19766715
  47. Results show the critical role of TxnRd1 in curcumin-mediated radiosensitization and suggest that TxnRd1 levels in tumors could have clinical value as a predictor of response to curcumin and radiotherapy. PMID: 20160040
  48. Caveolin 1 expression inhibits TrxR1-mediated cell transformation. PMID: 19820694
  49. Methylseleninate is a substrate rather than an inhibitor of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. PMID: 11782468
  50. Mutational analysis of human thioredoxin reductase 1. PMID: 11953436


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

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Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

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