Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. It is spread by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Its name comes from the Ziika Forest of Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947. Zika virus is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Since the 1950s, it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. From 2007 to 2016, the virus spread eastward, across the Pacific Ocean to the Americas, leading to the 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic.
The completely sequenced Zika viral genome is available online with 10,272 nucleotides. This gets translated into a single polyprotein. Furthermore, they were post and co-translationally cleaved by both host and viral proteases much like rest of their family members. This polyprotein comprises three structural (capsid, envelope and premembrane) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5). These structural proteins were reported to be involved in the formation of the viral particle. The non-structural proteins were involved in flavivirus assembly. The present study focused on the envelope protein (E protein) which is considered as the major determinant of virulence, tropism since it plays a critical role in mediation of receptor binding and membrane fusion.
Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; Zika virus NS1; ZIKV NS1; Zika virus NS1 protein 1; Zika virus Non-Strucural protein 1; Non-Strucural protein 1; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus; Zika Envelope; Zika Capsid
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