Other Cytokines

Angiopoietin Family

The angiopoietin family, including Ang-1, Ang-2, Ang-3, and Ang-4, plays a vital role in blood vessel development, repair, and remodeling. They are key players in angiogenesis and vascular stability, with significant clinical applications in cardiovascular diseases, tumors, and inflammatory diseases. The family is being explored as a therapeutic target for various vascular-related diseases.

Angiopoietin Family Details
Ephrins & Eph Receptors

Ephrins and Eph receptors are vital in cellular regulation, embryonic development, angiogenesis, and disease progression. They govern cell-cell interactions, apoptosis, migration, adhesion, and synaptic plasticity. Abnormal expression is linked to tumors, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases, making them promising therapeutic targets.

Ephrins & Eph Receptors Details
Neurotrophin Family

The Neurotrophin Family page explores the essential roles of neurotrophic factors in the nervous system's growth, survival, and function. It delves into the mechanisms of action, receptors, signaling pathways, and clinical applications in treating neurological disorders. The page emphasizes the importance of neurotrophic factors in development, maintenance, and repair of the nervous system, and their potential in treating diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and nerve injuries.

Neurotrophin Family Details
R-Spondin Protein

R-Spondin protein, closely related to the Wnt signaling pathway, plays a vital role in embryonic development, stem cell maintenance, tissue repair, and cancer development. It activates the Wnt pathway by interacting with LGR family receptors, regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Its significance extends to therapeutic applications.

R-Spondin Protein Details
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are cell surface receptors essential for cell signaling and communication. They regulate growth, differentiation, survival, and metabolism. Aberrant activation or dysfunction of RTKs is linked to diseases like cancer, cardiovascular issues, and neurological disorders, making them key therapeutic targets.

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Details
Wingless-INT (WNT) Family

The Wingless-INT (WNT) family is a vital group of cell signaling proteins, including WNT1, WNT2, WNT3, etc. They play a key role in embryonic development, tissue repair, and disease occurrence, including cancer and neurological disorders. The WNT signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance, offering potential therapeutic targets.

Wingless-INT (WNT) Family Details


The complement system is a complex group of proteins that mediate immune and inflammatory responses. Comprising nearly 40 components, including intrinsic components, regulatory proteins, and receptors, it was discovered in 1890. The system has at least two activation pathways and plays a vital role in microbial defense, immune regulation, and immune pathology. Its research areas include immunology, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, infections, and the nervous system. Complement's clinical significance extends to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of various diseases.

Complement Details