Recombinant Human PTN Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLA-7458P

Recombinant Human PTN Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLA-7458P
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Product Overview

Host Species Human
Accession P21246
Synonym HARP HB-GAM HBBM HBGAM HBGF-8 HBGF8 HBNF HBNF-1 HBNF1 heparin affin regulatory protein Heparin binding growth associated molecule Heparin binding growth factor 8 Heparin binding neurite outgrowth promoting factor 1 Heparin-binding brain mitogen Heparin-binding growth factor 8 Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule heparin-binding neurite outgrowth promoting factor Heparin-binding neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 1 NEGF1 Neurite growth promoting factor 1 Neurite outgrowth-promoting factor, heparin-binding OSF-1 OSF1 Osteoblast-specific factor 1 Pleiotrophin pleiotrophin (heparin binding growth factor 8, neurite growth-promoting factor 1) PTN PTN_HUMAN
Description Recombinant Human PTN Protein was expressed in E.coli. It is a Full length protein
Source E.coli
Molecular Weight 19 kDa
Purity >95% by SDS-PAGE .
Endotoxin < 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
Formulation Lyophilised
Stability The recombinant protein samples are stable for up to 12 months at -80°C
Reconstitution See related COA
Unit Definition For Research Use Only
Storage Buffer Shipped at Room Temperature. Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Working aliquots stored with a carrier protein are stable for at least 3 months at -20°C to -80°C..

Target Details

Target Function Secreted growth factor that mediates its signal through cell-surface proteoglycan and non-proteoglycan receptors. Binds cell-surface proteoglycan receptor via their chondroitin sulfate (CS) groups. Thereby regulates many processes like cell proliferation, cell survival, cell growth, cell differentiation and cell migration in several tissues namely neuron and bone. Also plays a role in synaptic plasticity and learning-related behavior by inhibiting long-term synaptic potentiation. Binds PTPRZ1, leading to neutralization of the negative charges of the CS chains of PTPRZ1, inducing PTPRZ1 clustering, thereby causing the dimerization and inactivation of its phosphatase activity leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of each of the PTPRZ1 substrates like ALK, CTNNB1 or AFAP1L2 in order to activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. Through PTPRZ1 binding controls oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation by enhancing the phosphorylation of AFAP1L2 in order to activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. Forms a complex with PTPRZ1 and integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV:ITGB3) that stimulates endothelial cell migration through SRC dephosphorylation and activation that consequently leads to ITGB3 'Tyr-773' phosphorylation. In adult hippocampus promotes dendritic arborization, spine development, and functional integration and connectivity of newborn granule neurons through ALK by activating AKT signaling pathway. Binds GPC2 and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) at the neuron surface, leading to abrogation of binding between PTPRS and CSPGs and neurite outgrowth promotion. Binds SDC3 and mediates bone formation by recruiting and attaching osteoblasts/osteoblast precursors to the sites for new bone deposition. Binds ALK and promotes cell survival and cell proliferation through MAPK pathway activation. Inhibits proliferation and enhances differentiation of neural stem cells by inhibiting FGF2-induced fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Mediates regulatory mechanisms in normal hemostasis and in hematopoietic regeneration and in maintaining the balance of myeloid and lymphoid regeneration. In addition may play a role in the female reproductive system, auditory response and the progesterone-induced decidualization pathway.
Subcellular Location Secreted.
Protein Families Pleiotrophin family
Database References
Tissue Specificity Osteoblast and brain.

Gene Functions References

  1. Molecular crosstalk between tumour-associated macrophages and glioma stem cells through PTN-PTPRZ1 paracrine signalling supports glioblastoma malignant growth. PMID: 28569747
  2. Expression of Mac-1 on the surface of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells induced their adhesion and migration to PTN. Accordingly, PTN promoted Mac-1-dependent cell spreading and initiated intracellular signaling manifested in phosphorylation of Erk1/2. PMID: 28939773
  3. This study showed that increased serum pleiotrophin levels are associated with better developed coronary collateral circulation in patients with chronic total occlusion in at least one major coronary artery. PMID: 28885394
  4. Pleiotrophin, a target of miR-384, promotes proliferation, metastasis and lipogenesis in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 28557334
  5. Elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients suggest their involvement in this disease. PMID: 27903979
  6. High PTN and N-syndecan expression was closely associated with metastasis and poor prognosis, suggesting that they may promote tumor progression and perineural invasion in the orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. PMID: 28638231
  7. PTN expression in glioma cells is associated with chromosome 7 gain. PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells. PMID: 27806344
  8. an early extracellular space disruption of PTN composition induces short- and long-term defaults in the establishment of proper functional cerebellar circuit. PMID: 26399645
  9. NK cells promote fetal development through the secretion of growth-promoting factors, pleiotrophin and osteoglycin. PMID: 29262349
  10. PTN knockdown attenuated the progression of experimental PVR in vivo. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PVR. PMID: 28083679
  11. Annealing helicase HARP closes RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles non-processively. PMID: 28334870
  12. Neural precursor cell (NPC):glioma cell communication underpins the propensity of glioma to colonize the lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) through secretion of chemoattractant signals toward which glioma cells home; analyses of SVZ NPC-secreted factors revealed the neurite outgrowth-promoting factor pleiotrophin, with required SPARC/SPARCL1 and HSP90B as mediators of this chemoattractant effect. PMID: 28823557
  13. these data indicate that PTN-PTPRZ-A signaling controls the timing of oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation in vivo, in which the CS moiety of PTPRZ receptors maintains them in a monomeric active state until its ligand binding. PMID: 27445335
  14. PTN could be considered as a potential biomarker for the presence of breast cancer. PMID: 28041942
  15. this study shows that the expression of PTN is significantly downregulated in keloid fibroblasts compared to normal human fibroblasts PMID: 27465069
  16. findings link pleiotrophin abundance in gliomas with survival in humans and mice, and show that pleiotrophin promotes glioma progression through increased VEGF deposition and vascular abnormalization. PMID: 26645582
  17. PTN levels in amniotic fluid were found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in healthy pregnancies. PMID: 27089523
  18. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer PMID: 26914549
  19. Data show that binding of pleiotrophin (PTN) to neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) stimulated the internalization and recycling of NRP-1 at the cell surface. PMID: 26408254
  20. PTN and its signaling components may be of significance in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 25418856
  21. High serum pleiotrophin levels are associated with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 25743809
  22. PTN expression in glioma was higher than in paratumor tissues. Overexpression was associated with the WHO grade, low Karnofsky score, time to recurrence, and poor survival. Co-expression of midkine and PTN had a worse prognosis than either alone. PMID: 25001988
  23. PTN was found to express abnormally high in lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer tissue. PMID: 25864755
  24. antagonizes the cell-cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation PMID: 24695857
  25. Over expression of PTN is significantly correlated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. PMID: 25436328
  26. Suppression of PTN activity with an anti-PTN antibody promoted apoptosis of cells. PMID: 24698102
  27. pleiotrophin is transactivated directly by SOX2, a transcription factor essential for the maintenance of both neural stem cells and glioblastoma stem cells. PMID: 23686309
  28. Ligand independent activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) results when the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) interacts with its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta-zeta (RPTPbeta-zeta). Review) PMID: 23777859
  29. PTN is able to induce ex vivo angiogenesis during aging. PMID: 23481101
  30. elevated expression of PTN is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar (HS). PMID: 23054143
  31. NDC80, NUF2 and PTN were significantly aberrantly overexpressed in serous adenocarcinomas. PMID: 23056589
  32. Soluble rhMDK, rmMDK and rhPTN were expressed at a high-level and the protein was purified by a one-step purification using heparin affinity chromatography. Activity of purified rhMDK and rhPTN was confirmed by a cell proliferation assay. PMID: 22871361
  33. pleiotrophin (PTN) was significantly overexpressed across all our macrodactyly samples. The mitogenic functions of PTN correlate closely with the clinical characteristics of macrodactyly. PMID: 22848377
  34. Data suggest a physiological role for HARP in modulating (i.e., antagonizing) endogenous anticoagulant activity of heparin-like material in the vasculature. PMID: 22672269
  35. Our data suggest that PTN is implicated in human prostate cancer growth in vivo PMID: 22783964
  36. this study shows that PTN expression is upregulated in a mouse model of peritoneal fibrosis and is present in human peritoneal tissues and in peritoneal dialysate effluent. PMID: 21881556
  37. in postmenopausal women, the PTN gene promoter polymorphism -1227C>T and CT haplotype could contribute to the genetic background of osteoporosis. PMID: 21353611
  38. in the prostate pleiotrophin (Ptn) functions as a regulator of both mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation, and that androgens regulate Ptn levels. PMID: 20812209
  39. results demonstrate that P(122-131) inhibits biological activities that are related to the induction of a transformed phenotype in PCa cells, by interacing with RPTPbeta-zeta and interfering with other pleiotrophin receptors PMID: 20738847
  40. The role of PTN and its involvement in tumor growth and angiogenesis, is summarized. PMID: 20167557
  41. molecular mechanism of the interactions between the oligosaccharides and pleiotrophin PMID: 20584902
  42. Overexpression of pleiotrophin is associated with glioblastoma. PMID: 20013808
  43. Midkine and pleiotrophin have bactericidal properties: preserved antibacterial activity in a family of heparin-binding growth factors during evolution. PMID: 20308059
  44. The data suggest that PTN expression in the human plaques may be in part regulated by IFN-gamma and that PTN is involved in the adaptive immunity. PMID: 19917672
  45. Using in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AIDS patients, the authors showed that PTN was sufficient to induce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. PMID: 20032204
  46. combination of SDF-1, PTN, IGF2, and EFNB1 mimics the DA phenotype-inducing property of SDIA and was sufficient to promote differentiation of hESC to functional midbrain DA neurons PMID: 19672298
  47. Pleiotrophin signaling through anaplastic lymphoma kinase is rate-limiting for glioblastoma growth. PMID: 11809760
  48. overexpression of Pleiotrophin is associated with inflammation and pancreatic cancer PMID: 11895915
  49. induced the stimulation of tritiated thymidine incorporation in quiescent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependant manner PMID: 11936877
  50. PTN induces weak chemotactic and strong haptotactic migration of glioblastoma and cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. PMID: 14692702


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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