Recombinant Human MIF Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-3367

Recombinant Human MIF Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-3367
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Human
Accession P14174
Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immunoregulatory cytokine, the effect of which on arresting random immune cell movement was recognized several decades ago. Despite its historic name, MIF also has a direct chemokine-like function and promotes cell recruitment. MIF is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that MIF also controls metabolic and inflammatory processes underlying the development of metabolic pathologies associated with obesity. Further research has shown that MIF plays a particularly critical part in cell cycle regulation and therefore in tumorigenesis as well. The significance of the role of MIF in a variety of both solid and hematologic tumors has been established. More recently, interest has increased in the role of MIF in the development of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, in which it appears to influence cell cycle control. MIF contributes to malignant disease progression on several different levels. Both circulating and intracellular MIF protein levels are elevated in cancer patients and MIF expression reportedly correlates with stage, metastatic spread and disease-free survival. Blockade of MIF bioactivity successfully inhibited tumor cell growth in vivo and in vitro. MIF plays important roles in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic disorders.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human MIF (P14174) (Pro 2-Ala 115) was fused with a His tag at the C-terminus and a signal peptide at the N-terminus.
Source HEK293
Predicted N Terminal Pro 2
AA Sequence Pro 2-Ala 115
Molecular Weight The recombinant human MIF consists of 125 a.a. and has a predicted molecular mass of 13.8 kDa. In SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, the apparent molecular mass of rhMIF is approximately 19 kDa due to glycosylation.
Purity >92% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin < 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile PBS, pH 7.4.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity.
Subcellular Location Secreted. Cytoplasm.
Protein Families MIF family
Database References
Associated Diseases Rheumatoid arthritis systemic juvenile (RASJ)

Gene Functions References

  1. These results highlight the importance of MIF overexpression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma aggressiveness, and indicate that MIF may be a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer PMID: 30226561
  2. MIF serum levels are elevated in erythema nodosum leprosum patients as compared to controls. PMID: 28656911
  3. Overall, the present work showed that MIF is a shear stress-sensitive cytokine and is transcriptionally regulated by KLF2, suggesting that laminar shear stress exerts its athero-protective effect in part by directly inhibiting pro-inflammatory MIF expression. PMID: 29403061
  4. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis is a complex process that involves distinct but also overlapping functions of HIF-1alpha and HIF- 2alpha in regard to angiogenesis, bioenergetic adaption and the redundant transcriptional induction of MIF. PMID: 28993199
  5. that macrophage migration inhibitory factor directly engages in dengue NS1-induced glycocalyx degradation and that targeting MIF may represent a possible therapeutic approach for preventing dengue-induced vascular leakage PMID: 29702687
  6. In this study, we conclude that the CC ge-notype of the MIF -173GC variant may be a risk factor in the pathogenesis of Behcet's Disease in the Turkish population. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to address the exact role of this variant in BD. PMID: 29669352
  7. Study describes a brain glycation profile and identify MIF, an immune regulator and insulin regulator, as being glycated and oxidised in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) brain homogenates. The glycation completely inhibited the oxidoreductase activity of MIF, and severely attenuated its tautomerase activity. PMID: 28230058
  8. our results reveal that MIF expression is a significant independent prognostic factor for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma PMID: 30041958
  9. the expression of MMIF, HIF-1alpha, and VEGF in the serum and endometrial tissues may be used to assess the stage of endometriosis and the severity of dysmenorrhea. PMID: 30074218
  10. migration inhibitory factor can aggravate diabetic neuropathy by suppressing glyoxalase-I and intraepidermal nerve fibers on the footpad skin lesions and provoke pain. PMID: 29690804
  11. This study provides better understanding of the mechanisms and disease susceptibility for MIF and CD14 genetic variants and inflammatory miRNAs networks involved in ankylosing spondylitis and polyarthralgia. PMID: 29863307
  12. In this review, we summarize and discuss MIF post-translational modifications and their effects on the biological properties of this protein. We propose that the redox-sensitive residues in MIF will be modified at sites of inflammation and that this will add further depth to the functional diversity of this intriguing cytokine PMID: 29247897
  13. meta-analyses revealed significantly higher circulating MIF levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and found evidence of associations between the MIF-173 C/G and -794CATT5-8 polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility PMID: 28912189
  14. MIF -794 CATT genotypes 7/8 and allele CATT 8 were highly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in a southwestern China population. PMID: 29809055
  15. Results found MIF and TNFA mRNA expression increased in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients with high activity in relation to patients with moderate activity. These results suggest that both mRNA possibly have a role in the progress of the disease severity. PMID: 28965181
  16. The present study indicated that the MIF-173G/C polymorphism may contribute to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. Furthermore, significantly higher serum MIF levels were observed in pulmonary tuberculosis patients than in controls, which further indicated that the MIF may play an important role in pulmonary tuberculosis progression, particularly in Asians. PMID: 28331211
  17. MIF and IL-6 play important roles in the inflammation associated with polymyositis. PMID: 29239244
  18. The expression collagen type 3, alpha1 (Col3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2/-9 and transforming growth factor (TGF)beta was higher in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF), compared with patients in sinus rhythm (SR), and the expression levels of MIF were also increased in AF. MIF was involved in the structural remodeling that accompanies AF, possibly by promoting the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. PMID: 29257298
  19. the findings of the present study demonstrated that MIF is a key component in lung cancer progression through promoting the Warburg effect, and that the novel MIF/NFkappaB/HIF1alpha axis may prove to be useful for the development of new strategies for treating patients with lung cancer PMID: 29207023
  20. These results potentially support an effect of MIF, but not Type I IFN, in heightened systemic lupus erythematosus disease severity in Asian systemic lupus erythematosus. The associations of MIF and Asian ethnicity with PAD are at least partly independent PMID: 27453287
  21. High MIF expression is associated with progressive multiple sclerosis. PMID: 28923927
  22. Increased perioperative MIF-levels are related to an increased risk of adverse outcome in complex aortic surgery and may represent a biomarker for risk stratification in complex aortic surgery. PMID: 29120365
  23. No association showed between SLE and the MIF -173 C allele, the -794CATT7 allele, and the -794CATT7-MIF-173C haplotype with high heterogeneity. PMID: 29096759
  24. Studied correlation of serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and healthy subjects; found higher serum MIF concentrations in AF patients than in healthy subjects. PMID: 28407372
  25. genetic polymorphisms of MIF may increase the risk of posttransplant development of donor specific antibodies in kidney allograft recipients PMID: 28624489
  26. We reviewed the association of the MIF rs755622*C allele with systemic sclerosis, and described a phenotype-specific association of this variant with the susceptibility to develop pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. PMID: 28668810
  27. Authors report that cysteine 81 within MIF serves as a "switch cysteine" for the conversion of redMIF to oxMIF. Modulating cysteine 81 by thiol reactive agents leads to significant structural rearrangements of the protein, resulting in a decreased beta-sheet content and an increased random coil content, but maintaining the trimeric quaternary structure. PMID: 29412660
  28. These findings predict the binding mode of Hu-MIF-1 and orthologs with CD74. PMID: 28513076
  29. Serum MIF provides information about inflammation, brain injury severity and outcome after aSAH PMID: 28823650
  30. MIF in serum might be a potential biomarker for reflecting inflammation, severity and prognosis of ICH patients PMID: 28729134
  31. In conclusion, MIF rs755622 polymorphism increases breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese population, especially among elder patients. PMID: 27844180
  32. MIF coreceptor CD44 is expressed by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts in a MIF allele-dependent fashion and undergoes functional regulation and activation by autocrine/paracrine MIF PMID: 27872288
  33. High MIF expression is associated with hepatocellular injury and graft rejection. PMID: 28370484
  34. MIF is involved in the pathogenesis of AF, probably by down-regulating the protein and gene expression of Cx43 via ERK1/2 kinase activation PMID: 28429502
  35. Lower circulating migration inhibitory factor protein is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes PMID: 28703031
  36. Increased serum MIF levels are associated with the elevation of pre-diabetic risk. PMID: 29289260
  37. Serum macrophage migratory inflammatory factor levels were higher in HD patients (982.74 pg/mL) than that of PD patients (762.20 pg/mL), CKD patients (755.66 pg/mL), or healthy controls (336.81 pg/mL) (P = 0.009). Levels were also significantly increased in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, and they correlated with the levels of other inflammatory factors. PMID: 27811451
  38. The assay monitors the increase in absorbance at 320 nm resulting from keto-to-enol tautomerization of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, a reaction catalyzed by MIF. We ran a full-diversity screen evaluating the inhibitory activity of 1.6 million compounds. PMID: 26933127
  39. The rs5844572 polymorphism in MIF is linked to the rate of progression and extent of fibrosis in Biliary Atresia Patients, but not with disease susceptibility. PMID: 28657145
  40. Absolute numbers of MIF and IL-1beta mRNA molecules are both accurate and reliable predictors of antidepressant response. PMID: 27207917
  41. The knockdown of D-DT and MIF, individually and additively, inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion in HeLa and SiHa cells and restrained the growth of xenograft tumor. PMID: 28338494
  42. No association between coronary artery disease class and -794 CATT5-8 MIF polymorphisms with soluble MIF levels in CAD subjects. PMID: 28578664
  43. These results have implications for the manner in which D-DT and MIF compete with each other for binding to the CD74 receptor and for the relative potency of DRa1-MOG-35-55 and RTL1000 for competitive inhibition of D-DT and MIF binding and activation through CD74. PMID: 27573366
  44. Plasma MIF was elevated after cardiac stress (relative to before stress) in patients with a positive stress test, compared with those with a negative stress test. Plasma MIF is an early marker for myocardial ischemia. MIF was not altered after exercise in peripheral arterial occlusive disease patients, despite the occurrence of claudication, suggesting that plasma MIF is not a marker for skeletal muscle ischemia. PMID: 27364992
  45. Increased serum MIF concentrations have close relation to inflammation, trauma severity and clinical outcomes, substantializing MIF as a good prognostic biomarker after TBI PMID: 28366792
  46. renal tubular MIF is an endogenous renoprotective factor in progressive kidney diseases PMID: 28801314
  47. involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis being mainly expressed in the areas of remodeling and active fibrosis, in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium, and in the peripheral zone of fibroblastic foci PMID: 27337548
  48. MIF is primarily an indirect promoter of glioblastoma progression. PMID: 27145382
  49. frequent upregulation of MIF is implicated in the development and progression ofesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). PMID: 29079416
  50. Data highlight the complexity of the MIF/CD74 signaling pathway in the development of mesothelioma. PMID: 26883190


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

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Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

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