Recombinant Human MAD2L1 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-3273

Recombinant Human MAD2L1 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-3273
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Human
Accession Q13257
Synonym HSMAD2, MAD2
Background Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A, also known as HsMAD2, Mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 1, MAD2-like protein 1, MAD2L1 and MAD2, is a nucleus and cytoplasm protein which belongs to theMAD2 family. MAD2L1 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. MAD2L1 is required for the execution of the mitotic checkpoint which monitors the process of kinetochore-spindle attachment and inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex by sequestering CDC2 until all chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate. MAD2L1 has two highly different native conformations, an inactive open conformation that cannot bind CDC2 and that predominates in cytosolic monomers, and an active closed conformation. MAD2L1 in the closed conformation preferentially dimerizes with another molecule in the open conformation, but can also form a dimer with a molecule in the closed conformation. Formation of a heterotetrameric core complex containing two molecules of MAD1L1 and of MAD2L1 in the closed conformation promotes binding of another molecule of MAD2L1 in the open conformation and the conversion of the open to the closed form, and thereby promotes interaction with CDC2.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human MAD2L1 (Q13257) (Met 1-Asp 205) was expressed, with a His tag at the N-terminus.
Source E.coli
Predicted N Terminal Met
AA Sequence Met 1-Asp 205
Molecular Weight The recombinant human MAD2L1 consisting of 221 a.a. and has a calculated molecular mass of 25.6 kDa. It migrates as an 28 kDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions as predicted.
Purity >96% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin Please contact us for more information.
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile PBS, 20% glycerol, pH 7.4.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. In the closed conformation (C-MAD2) forms a heterotetrameric complex with MAD1L1 at unattached kinetochores during prometaphase, the complex recruits open conformation molecules of MAD2L1 (O-MAD2) and then promotes the conversion of O-MAD2 to C-MAD2. Required for the execution of the mitotic checkpoint which monitors the process of kinetochore-spindle attachment and inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex by sequestering CDC20 until all chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate.
Subcellular Location Nucleus. Chromosome, centromere, kinetochore. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle pole.
Protein Families MAD2 family
Database References

Gene Functions References

  1. MAD2 was found both in SCLC and NSCLC. Interestingly, there was a significant difference found between SCLC and NSCLC using qt-PCR (P<0.05). PMID: 30346937
  2. we demonstrate that the CDC20-MAD2 complex could also be formed independently of the SAC. Moreover, in prolonged arrest caused by nocodazole treatment, the overall levels of the CDC20-MAD2 complex are gradually, but significantly, reduced and this is associated with lower levels of cyclin B1, which brings a new insight into the mechanism of mitotic "slippage" of the arrested cells. PMID: 28112196
  3. MAD2-p31(comet) axis may serve as a potential therapeutic target for glioma. PMID: 29408509
  4. These results identify an unexpected dependency on TRIP13 in cells overexpressing Mad2. PMID: 28564602
  5. this study shows that MAD2L1 is a prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma PMID: 27835911
  6. MiR-200c-5p suppresses proliferation and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing MAD2L1 expression. PMID: 28609841
  7. Low MAD2L1 expression is associated with Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinomas. PMID: 28807937
  8. TRAP1 is relevant in the control of key cell cycle regulators in tumor cells. TRAP1/TBP7 quality control of CDK1 and MAD2 contributes mechanistically to the regulation of mitotic entry and transit. PMID: 28678347
  9. Thes authors show that p31(comet) binding to the TRIP13 N-terminal domain positions the disordered MAD2 N-terminus for engagement by the TRIP13 "pore loops", which then unfold MAD2 in the presence of ATP. PMID: 28659378
  10. catalytic activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint depends on regulated protein-protein interactions that accelerate the spontaneous but rate-limiting conversion of MAD2 required for mitotic checkpoint complex assembly PMID: 28102834
  11. in addition to its role in checkpoint signaling, MAD2 ensures chromosome stability through the regulation of AURORA B. PMID: 27341405
  12. Overexpression of MAD2gamma may play a role in checkpoint disruption and is associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in testicular germ cell tumors. PMID: 27315568
  13. Aberrant Mad2 expression was associated with cell proliferation and genetic instability, which may contribute to the carcinogenesis of PGI-DLBCL. Mad2 overexpression indicated a poor DFS. PMID: 27077767
  14. interactions between Mad2 and H3K4 regulate resolution of the spindle assembly checkpoint by limiting closed Mad2 availability for Cdc20 inhibition. PMID: 27198228
  15. we showed that BubR1 and Mad2 are overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and linked such overexpression to attenuated spindle assembly checkpoint activity. PMID: 25754611
  16. Studied the folding/unfolding process of the open and closed conformers of human Mad2. PMID: 26489879
  17. MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met interaction with smoking increase the risk of colorectal cancer PMID: 26183163
  18. p31comet-induced cell death is mediated by interactions with Mad2 PMID: 26544187
  19. MAD2L1 and BUB1 may play important roles in breast cancer progression, and measuring the expression of these genes may assist the prediction of breast cancer prognosis. PMID: 26287798
  20. We also show that replication perturbations result in relocalization of MAD1/MAD2 in human cells, suggesting that the role of SAC in DNA repair is conserved. PMID: 25898113
  21. Data indicate the structure of the intermediate conformer of the multistate checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) protein. PMID: 26305957
  22. WT1 has a role in interacting MAD2 and regulating mitotic checkpoint function PMID: 25232865
  23. In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that Mad2 and BubR1 could be used as prognostic markers of tumor progression and new pharmacological targets in the treatment for gastric cancer . PMID: 25483095
  24. Co-depletion of MAD2 and BUBR1 causes cell cycle arrest and cell death in addition to aneuploidy. PMID: 24687487
  25. hMAD2 also binds to the hREV7-binding sequence in hREV3, whereas hMAD2 does not bind to a similar sequence in ADAM9 or ELK-1 and hREV7 does not bind to the hMAD2-binding sequence in hMAD1 or hCDC20. PMID: 20088965
  26. CDC20, MAD2 and Aurora-B protein expression are associated with chromosomal abnormalities and poor prognosis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID: 25637637
  27. the interaction of FAT10 with MAD2 is a key mechanism underlying the promalignant property of FAT10 PMID: 25422469
  28. MAD2 and CDC20 overexpression was increased in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous cell carcinomas, suggesting their involvement in the initiation of cervical cancers. PMID: 25083970
  29. MAD2 may be involved in oral carcinogenesis and may represent an important prognostic factor associated with a more malignant phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 25503128
  30. This article reviews Mad1 and Mad2 - structural and functional relationship with implication in genetic diseases, specifically in cancer. [review] PMID: 24724894
  31. The interconversion between two distinct conformations of open- and closed-states might facilitate the functional activity of the Mad2 protein. PMID: 24690997
  32. Results showed that neither variants in BUB3 nor variants in MAD2L1 caused any significant effect on the risk of breast cancer PMID: 24711138
  33. In ovarian carcinoma, tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer recurrence-free survival prognosis. PMID: 24792619
  34. The expression and localization of Mad2 and Cdc20 is regulated by subcellular Chk1 during the metaphase-anaphase transition. PMID: 24747134
  35. MiR-28-5p is a critical regulator of Mad2 translation and mitotic checkpoint function. PMID: 24491803
  36. attenuating the affinity of p31(Comet) for Mad2 by phosphorylation promotes SAC activity in mitosis. Specifically, phosphorylation of Ser-102 weakens p31(Comet)-Mad2 binding and enhances p31(Comet)-mediated bypass of the SAC. PMID: 24596092
  37. Results show that Mad1-Mad2 must be targeted to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in order to produce the premitotic Cdc20 inhibitor, which ensures that anaphase and mitotic exit are robustly coupled to the establishment and correction of kinetochore-microtubule attachments. PMID: 24581499
  38. results strongly suggest that PP2A is a good therapeutic target in Mad2-overexpressing tumors PMID: 24425774
  39. Studied the significance of budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles-1 (Bub1) and mitotic arrest deficient-2 (Mad2) expression in endometrial carcinoma. PMID: 24654460
  40. Tpr is a kinetochore-independent, rate-limiting factor required to mount and sustain a robust SAC response. PMID: 24344181
  41. sustained MPS1 activity is required for maintaining both the MAD1.C-MAD2 complex and open MAD2 (O-MAD2) at unattached kinetochores to facilitate C-MAD2 production PMID: 24151075
  42. increased expression of CDC20 and MAD2 is related to poor prognosis of urothelial carcinoma of the human bladder PMID: 23995871
  43. Mad2 protein is co-localizes and associated with chk1 increase after DNA damage. PMID: 23454898
  44. Mad2 Binding Induces a Functional Switch in Cdc20,Enabling BubR1 Binding. PMID: 23791783
  45. MAD2 expression levels can indicate sensitivity to anticancer agents, and risk for recurrence in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. PMID: 22797604
  46. data validate the correlation between upregulation of Mad2 and osteosarcoma advancement, and that the underlying mechanisms involve the increase of invasiveness and cancer stem cell properties PMID: 22992948
  47. Weakened spindle checkpoint with reduced expression of Mad2 is associated with resistance to paclitaxel in ovarian cells. PMID: 21063845
  48. The germline transmission of exonic deletion of MAD2 is possibly associated with its loss of expression resulting in abnormal spindle assembly checkpoint function, subsequent aneuploidy and pregnancy loss. PMID: 22869558
  49. The Mad2 and the APC/C competed for Cdc20 in vitro, and a Cdc20 mutant that does not bind stably to Mad2 abrogated the SAC in vivo. PMID: 23007648
  50. The mitotic Checkpoint Complex is assembled by first forming a BUBR1:BUB3:CDC20 complex in G2 and then selectively incorporating MAD2 in the closed conformation during mitosis. PMID: 22037211


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