Recombinant Human GDNF Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-2226

Recombinant Human GDNF Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-2226
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Product Overview

Tag N/A
Host Species Human
Accession P39905
Synonym ATF1, ATF2, HFB1-GDNF, HSCR3
Background Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(GDNF) is an important member of the GDNF family of ligands(GFL). The GDNF family of ligands is comprised by four neurotrophic factors: glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN), and persephin (PSPN). It has been found that GFLs play a role in a number of biological processes including cell survival, neurite outgrowth, cell differentiation and cell migration. As the founding member, GDNF plays a key role in the promotion of the survival of dopaminergic neurons. GDNF is a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein also promotes the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy. GDNF also regulates kidney development and spermatogenesis, and it affects alcohol consumption. It has been shown that GDNF results in two Parkinson's disease clinical trial and in a number of animal trials. It has been taken as a potent survival factor for central motoneurons.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the mature form of human GDNF (P39905-2) (Arg 83-Ile 185) was expressed and purified, with additional two aa (Gly& Pro) at the N-terminus.
Source HEK293
Predicted N Terminal Gly
AA Sequence Arg 83-Ile 185
Molecular Weight The recombinant human GDNF consists of 105 a.a. and predicts a molecular mass of 15.1 KDa. It migrates as approximately 18 KDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.
Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin < 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
Bioactivity 1. Measured in a cell proliferation assay using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The ED50 for this effect is typically 3-15 ng/mL in the presence of Recombinant Human GFR alpha-1/GDNF R alpha-1 His Chimera.2. Measured by its ability to bind biotinylated Human GFRa1-His in functional ELISA.
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile PBS, pH 7.4.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Neurotrophic factor that enhances survival and morphological differentiation of dopaminergic neurons and increases their high-affinity dopamine uptake.
Subcellular Location Secreted.
Protein Families TGF-beta family, GDNF subfamily
Database References
Associated Diseases Hirschsprung disease 3 (HSCR3); Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS); Pheochromocytoma (PCC)
Tissue Specificity In the brain, predominantly expressed in the striatum with highest levels in the caudate and lowest in the putamen. Isoform 2 is absent from most tissues except for low levels in intestine and kidney. Highest expression of isoform 3 is found in pancreatic

Gene Functions References

  1. Data show that GDNF promotes angiogenesis through demethylation of the FMOD promoter in human glioblastoma. PMID: 30176167
  2. the inverse relationship between GFRalpha1 and C-Ret, as knocking down C-Ret led to increases in GFRalpha1 expression. PMID: 29018141
  3. This study showed that the GDNF levels in preterm newborns were higher in cord blood and lower in CSF as compared to term newborns. PMID: 29031644
  4. We thus confirmed the role of GDNF as an adaptive survival factor, and its alteration appears to have a key role in nephrocalcinosis. We also discovered that, in GDNF-silenced cells, death occurs in a programmed but caspase-independent manner. PMID: 29208768
  5. Results suggested that while alterations at 5:37812784 T > A and 5:37812782 T > A sites related with higher GDNF serum levels and less functionality, and alterations at rs62360370 G > A 3'UTR SNP of GDNF associated with higher severity and lower functionality. However, alterations at both rs2075680 C > A and rs79669773 T > C SNPs affect neither GDNF serum levels nor severity and functionality in bipolar disorder. PMID: 28891527
  6. To our knowledge, this is the first study which correlates GDNF levels with metabolic parameters. Our results show no differences in GDNF serum level between schizophrenia, a first depressive episode, and healthy controls. GDNF serum level did not correlate with metabolic parameters except for total cholesterol in depression. PMID: 28689143
  7. The results suggest an interaction between NGF, GDNF and MMP-9 during the transition to malignancy in prostate cancer (PC). Also this interaction may involve in regulating PC cell differentiation, tumor invasion, progression, and the agressiveness of PC. PMID: 28237042
  8. Study also demonstrates that the interaction between GDNF and proN-cadherin activates specific intracellular signaling pathways; furthermore, GDNF promoted the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the ECM via proN-cadherin. PMID: 28212546
  9. Protective effect of GDNF-engineered amniotic fluid-derived stem cells on the renal ischaemia reperfusion injury in vitro. PMID: 29114949
  10. GDNF has a role in lower than expected motor development, but while IL-1beta and CXCL8/IL-8 values were higher in the group with typical motor development among preterm neonates PMID: 28553016
  11. These findings provide preliminary evidence that silencer II hypermethylation in the gdnf promoter II may underlie high gene transcription in high-grade glioma cells. PMID: 26232065
  12. there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRalpha-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing PMID: 27346872
  13. In SOD1(G93A) spinal cords, we verified a strict correlation in the expression of the TNFalpha, TNFR1 and GDNF triad at different stages of disease progression. Yet, ablation of TNFR1 completely abolished GDNF rises in both SOD1(G93A) astrocytes and spinal cords, a condition that accelerated motor neuron degeneration and disease progression PMID: 27288458
  14. In functional dyspepsia patients, duodenal expression of GDNF protein was significantly increased compared with controls. GDNF was localized in enteric glial cells, eosinophils, and epithelial cells. PMID: 27718082
  15. Suppression of miR-383 may increase the therapeutic potential of human bone-marrow-derived MSCs in treating spinal cord injury via augmentation of GDNF protein levels. PMID: 28365701
  16. Our results suggest that GDNF rs3096140 might be involved in the genetic background of smoking, independent of anxiety characteristics. PMID: 27994179
  17. No correlations between the levels of serum neurotrophins and the severity of ADHD were observed. These results suggest that elevated serum GDNF and NTF3 levels may be related to ADHD in children. PMID: 27561780
  18. BDNF and GDNF interact with the 5-HT-system of the brain through feedback mechanisms engaged in autoregulation PMID: 28320272
  19. Study shows no correlation between GDNF rs884344 and rs3812047 polymorphisms and subjects with tinnitus. PMID: 27180191
  20. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of GDNF as well as the PI3K/Akt pathway, but not the MAPK pathway, in the prevention of diabetesinduced neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. PMID: 26549420
  21. Increased plasma levels of GDNF were found in untreated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients. PMID: 25753832
  22. GDNF levels were lower in the ECT responders compared with pre-ECT levels PMID: 25354171
  23. The GDNF polymorphism rs3096140 is associated with Tourette syndrome. PMID: 26096985
  24. GDNF levels were significantly higher in mania and lower in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. BDNF levels were negatively correlated to illness severity scores in affective episodes PMID: 25543333
  25. Data indicate that glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was down-regulated in the medullary sponge kidney (MSK) cells. PMID: 25692823
  26. Osteogenic features of MSCs from ossification of yellow ligament patients are promoted by un-methylated GDNF. PMID: 25913759
  27. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(GDNF)-induced growth and differentiation of cultured enteric neurons is paralleled by increased expression of SNAP-25 and formation of synaptic vesicles reflecting enhanced synaptogenesis. PMID: 25655772
  28. improvement in behavioral performance (open-field and grip-strength tests), as well as increased life-span was observed in rodents treated with NCAM-VEGF or NCAM-GDNF co-transfected cells PMID: 25619885
  29. Data indicate the glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling pathway as a potential target for improving responses to conventional genotoxic therapeutics. PMID: 25575823
  30. In major depressive disorder patients, serum GDNF levels were lower compared to controls. PMID: 24899094
  31. the PTX-sensitive alpha-subunit of G proteins, Go1 and Gi3, plays an important role in a monoamine-independent production of GDNF evoked by amitriptyline PMID: 25869129
  32. These results suggest that D2R activation induces a Gbetagamma- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent increase in the level of Zif268, which functions to directly up-regulate the expression of GDNF. PMID: 23373701
  33. An increased risk of HD[Heroine Dependence] and depression was associated with rs2910709 T/T genotype and rs884344 C allele, respectively, suggesting GDNF is a novel susceptibility gene for depression and HD. PMID: 24022000
  34. histone H3K9 hyperacetylation in promoter II of the gdnf gene might be one of the reasons for its abnormal high transcription in glioma cells. PMID: 24619502
  35. Study found association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the regulatory sites of Glial Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) and bipolar disorder. PMID: 24997227
  36. Transgenic expression of human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor from integration-deficient lentiviral vectors is neuroprotective in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. PMID: 24635742
  37. No differences in plasma BDNF, NGF, NT3, NT4 and GDNF were found between autism spectrum disorders and control. PMID: 25275256
  38. GDNF expression was upregulated upon radiation therapy in submandibular glands. PMID: 25036711
  39. This hypothesis offers a dramatically different explanation for the etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease as a manifestation of acquired resistance to GDNF. PMID: 25448159
  40. serum levels of GDNF may be an unsuitable biomarker for schizophrenia, although it may be associated with working memory in healthy controls and the pathophysiology of attention deficits in schizophrenia. PMID: 24861509
  41. GDNF is a novel candidate gene of anxiety. PMID: 24324616
  42. GDNF increases the metastasis and migration of colon cancer cells PMID: 24165321
  43. Transgenic GDNF+/- mice, not wild-type, show increased kidney glomerular damage with a low nephron number. PMID: 24247178
  44. These findings collectively demonstrate that GFRalpha1 released by nerves enhances perineural invasion through GDNF-RET signaling and that GFRalpha1 expression by cancer cells enhances but is not required for it. PMID: 24778213
  45. Changes in transcriptional factor binding capacity are due to changes in promoter region methylation and might be the underlying mechanism for aberrantly high gdnf expression in glioma. PMID: 23606280
  46. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor has a regulatory effect on cell migration in oral squamous cancer. PMID: 24070603
  47. The novelty of the study lies in its large number of exclusively adolescent depression patients showing significant reduction of BDNF, NGF and GDNF serum levels as compared to controls. A gender bias with much reduction in female has also been recorded. PMID: 23769609
  48. inducible lentivirus-mediated hGDNF gene delivery system may provide useful tools for basic research on gene therapy for chronic neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease PMID: 23717608
  49. Results indicate GDNF-RET signaling as a rational therapeutic target to combat or delay the onset of aromatase inhibitor resistance in breast cancer. PMID: 23650283
  50. Human GDNF protected crayfish neurons and glia from photodynamic injury. PMID: 22847529


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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