Recombinant Human Cystatin A Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-1527

Recombinant Human Cystatin A Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-1527
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Human
Accession P01040
Synonym AREI, STF1, STFA
Background Cystatin-A, also known as Cystatin-AS, Stefin-A and CSTA, is a cytoplasm protein which belongs to thecystatin family. Cystatin-A / CSTA is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor with a molecular mass of 11 kDa, and is located mainly in the keratohyaline granules of the stratum granulosum and the cornified envelope of the stratum corneum in the epidermis. The cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors with homology to chicken cystatin. Cystatins are physiological inhibitors of cysteine proteinases which are widely distributed in human tissues and fluids. Cystatins typically comprise about 115 amino acids, are largely acidic, contain four conserved cysteine residues known to form two disulfide bonds. Cystatins may be glycosylated and / or phosphorylated, with similarity to fetuins, kininogens, stefins, histidine-rich glycoproteins and cystatin-related proteins. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired inhibitory activity. Cystatins mainly inhibit peptidases belonging to peptidase families C1 (papain family) and C13 (legumain family).
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human CSTA (P01040) (Ile 2-Phe 98) was expressed with a His tag at the N-terminus.
Source E.coli
Predicted N Terminal Met
AA Sequence Ile 2-Phe 98
Molecular Weight The recombinant human CSTA consisting of 108 a.a. and has a calculated molecular mass of 12.4 KDa. It migrates as an approximately 14 kDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.
Purity >95% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin Please contact us for more information.
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile 50mM Tris, 1mM EDTA, pH 7.5.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function This is an intracellular thiol proteinase inhibitor. Has an important role in desmosome-mediated cell-cell adhesion in the lower levels of the epidermis.
Subcellular Location Cytoplasm.
Protein Families Cystatin family
Database References
Associated Diseases Peeling skin syndrome 4 (PSS4)
Tissue Specificity Expressed in the skin throughout the epidermis.

Gene Functions References

  1. High levels of CSTA expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma were correlated with tumor progression and advanced cancer stage, including lymph node metastasis. PMID: 29642180
  2. UV phototoxicity-induced pre-elafin inside keratinocytes prior to cornified envelope formation could be involved in UV-induced keratinocyte apoptosis via cystatin-A downregulation resulting in pro-caspase-3 activation. PMID: 28119996
  3. Identify myoepithelial cell stefin A as a suppressor of early tumor invasion and a candidate marker to distinguish patients who are at low risk of developing invasive breast cancer. PMID: 29086922
  4. Expression of CSTA was detected in some tumor tissues and many tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Cathepsin B expression was also observed in most tumor tissues and tumor-infiltrating immune cells PMID: 28898495
  5. The results suggest that C12orf39, CSTA, and CALCB are novel ATF4 target genes, and that C12orf39 promoter activity is activated by ATF4 through amino acid response element. PMID: 26967115
  6. CSTA/TYROBP gene interaction might play pivotal roles in the occurrence and development of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis . PMID: 26676054
  7. High expression of stefin A may be an important factor contributing to the development and metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. PMID: 26753874
  8. Both MIP-3alpha and cystatin A overexpressions in NPC tumor tissues were strong independent factors of poor prognosis in NPC patients. PMID: 26634210
  9. a novel pathway of CSTA regulation involving Dsg2 PMID: 25785582
  10. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.Lys22X) in the CSTA gene in acral peeling skin syndrome. PMID: 23534700
  11. High levels of bioactive recombinant stefins A and B can be produced by fermentation in P. pastoris. PMID: 23656633
  12. Data indicate that desmoplakin (DSP) and cystatin A (CSTA) interaction and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and syndecan 1 (SDC1) interaction were observed in protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. PMID: 23546957
  13. Imiquimod suppresses propagation of herpes simplex virus 1 by upregulation of cystatin A via the adenosine receptor A1 pathway PMID: 22787201
  14. findings provide a new molecular understanding of the mechanisms of MYOC-causative glaucoma and reveal CSTA, a serum biomarker for cancer, as a potential biomarker and drug for the treatment of MYOC-induced glaucoma PMID: 22615763
  15. study identified loss-of-function mutations in the gene for protease inhibitor cystatin A as the underlying genetic cause of exfoliative ichthyosis PMID: 21944047
  16. CSTA significantly increases the risk of developing psoriasis in HLA-Cw6 individuals PMID: 21412248
  17. Findings establish that genetic variability, smoking, and COPD all influence CSTA expression, as does SCC, supporting the concept that CSTA may make pivotal contributions to NSCLC pathogenesis in early and late stages of disease development. PMID: 21325429
  18. A higher pretreated serum level of cystatin A was found to be associated with a higher nodal stage and poorer prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. PMID: 20461718
  19. Up-regulation of stefin A, an endogenous inhibitor of cathepsin S, was found in inverted papilloma tissues as compared with its expression level in normal sinus mucosa tissues. PMID: 21038029
  20. Cystatin A binds reduced forms of mite group 1 allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, in which the cysteine residue at the catalytic center of the protease activity is reduced by treatment with L-cysteine but does not bind oxidized forms. PMID: 19933866
  21. crystal structure in complex with cathepsin H PMID: 12581647
  22. The 1,25(OH)(2)D3-responsive element in cystatin A gene is identical to TRE, T2 (-272 to -278). Suppression of Raf-1/MEK1/ERK1,2 signaling pathway increases cystatin A expression of normal human keratinocytes. PMID: 12682854
  23. backbone dynamics of the monomeric and domain-swapped dimeric forms of stefin A by (15)N relaxation using a model-free approach PMID: 14747998
  24. By using ThT fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy (AFM), it has been shown that human stefins A and B (subfamily A of cystatins) form amyloid fibrils PMID: 15048832
  25. No association with psoriasis susceptibility PMID: 15175029
  26. Chimeras of stefinA and B have been prepared and guanidine denaturation curves and folding rates have been examined. PMID: 16342276
  27. only stefins A and B, i.e. type I cystatins, are up-regulated in lung tumours and thus able to counteract harmful tumour-associated proteolytic activity PMID: 16969475
  28. Cystatin A suppresses UVB-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes by the inhibition of caspase 3 activation. PMID: 17412564
  29. +344C allele associated with unstable mRNA could result in failing to protect the skin barrier in atopic dermatitis patients from both exogenous and endogenous proteases. PMID: 17441792
  30. We conclude that Stefin A expression reduces distant metastasis in breast cancer and propose that this may be due to the inhibition of cysteine cathepsins, such as cathepsin B. PMID: 17985332
  31. CSTA TCC haplotype is only associated with psoriasis in those individuals carrying the risk allele at the HLA-Cw6 locus PMID: 18364739
  32. expression of cystatin A is regulated via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways positively by Ras/MEKK1/MKK7/JNK and negatively by Ras/Raf/MEK1/ERK. PMID: 11451947


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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