Recombinant Human beta-Catenin / CTNNB1 Protein (His & GST Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0394

Recombinant Human beta-Catenin / CTNNB1 Protein (His & GST Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0394
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Product Overview

Tag His&GST
Host Species Human
Accession P35222
Synonym armadillo, CTNNB, MRD19
Background beta-Catenin, also known as CTNNB1, is a member of the armadillo family of proteins. These proteins have multiple copies of the so-called armadillo repeat domain, which is specialized for protein-protein binding. It is part of a complex of proteins that constitute adherens junctions (AJs). AJs are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers by regulating cell growth and adhesion between cells. CTNNB1 also anchors the actin cytoskeleton and may be responsible for transmitting the contact inhibition signal that causes cells to stop dividing once the epithelial sheet is complete. Finally, beta-Catenin binds to the product of the APC gene, which is mutated in adenomatous polyposis of the colon. Defects in beta-Catenin can cause colorectal cancer, pilomatrixoma (PTR), medulloblastoma, and ovarian cancer. CTNNB1 is a key dowstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, it forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In the presence of Wnt ligand, beta-Catenin is not ubiquitinated and accumulates in the nucleus, where it acts as a coactivator for transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, leading to activate Wnt responsive genes. CTNNB1 is involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. The majority of beta-catenin is localized to the cell membrane and is part of E-cadherin/catenin adhesion complexes which are proposed to couple cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human CTNNB1 (P35222-1) (Met 1-Leu 781) was fused with the N-terminal His-tagged GST tag at the N-terminus.
Source Baculovirus-Insect Cells
Predicted N Terminal Met
AA Sequence Met 1-Leu 781
Molecular Weight The recombinant human CTNNB1/GST chimera consists of 1018 a.a. and has a calculated molecular mass of 113 kDa. It migrates as an approximately 116 kDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.
Purity >85% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin < 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile 50mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, 25% glycerol, pH 8.0, 0.1mM EDTA, 1mM TCEP, 0.4mM PMSF, 0.5mM GSH.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Key downstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In the presence of Wnt ligand, CTNNB1 is not ubiquitinated and accumulates in the nucleus, where it acts as a coactivator for transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, leading to activate Wnt responsive genes. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion, as component of an E-cadherin:catenin adhesion complex. Acts as a negative regulator of centrosome cohesion. Involved in the CDK2/PTPN6/CTNNB1/CEACAM1 pathway of insulin internalization. Blocks anoikis of malignant kidney and intestinal epithelial cells and promotes their anchorage-independent growth by down-regulating DAPK2. Disrupts PML function and PML-NB formation by inhibiting RANBP2-mediated sumoylation of PML. Promotes neurogenesis by maintaining sympathetic neuroblasts within the cell cycle. Involved in chondrocyte differentiation via interaction with SOX9: SOX9-binding competes with the binding sites of TCF/LEF within CTNNB1, thereby inhibiting the Wnt signaling.
Subcellular Location Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell junction, adherens junction. Cell junction. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle pole. Cell junction, synapse. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, cilium basal body.
Protein Families Beta-catenin family
Database References
Associated Diseases Colorectal cancer (CRC); Pilomatrixoma (PTR); Medulloblastoma (MDB); Ovarian cancer (OC); Mesothelioma, malignant (MESOM); Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 19 (MRD19); Vitreoretinopathy, exudative 7 (EVR7)
Tissue Specificity Expressed in several hair follicle cell types: basal and peripheral matrix cells, and cells of the outer and inner root sheaths. Expressed in colon. Present in cortical neurons (at protein level). Expressed in breast cancer tissues (at protein level).

Gene Functions References

  1. CXC chemokine ligand 9 promotes the progression of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a beta-catenin-dependent manner. PMID: 30130730
  2. Results suggest that epigenetic regulation of CTNNB1 may serve as a novel avenue to block colon cancer cell migration and invasion. PMID: 29923144
  3. The results demonstrated that 2HF could inhibit EMT, and cell migration and invasion through the Wnt/bcatenin signaling pathway by suppressing GSK3b phosphorylation, betacatenin expression and transactivation. PMID: 30226607
  4. Collectively, these studies suggested the cellular transcription factor beta-catenin stimulates productive herpes simplex virus 1infection, in part because VP16 enhances beta-catenin dependent transcription. PMID: 30077727
  5. CTNNB1 mutations may be more related to tumorigenesis ( aldosterone-producing adenoma) rather than excessive aldosterone production PMID: 28102204
  6. CTNNB1 mutations were found in 60% of Basal cell adenoma but not in basal cell adenocarcinoma. None of the tested cases had PIK3CA mutations. CTNNB1 mutation trended to be more common in those cases having a predominant tubular or tubulotrabecular patterns. PMID: 29224720
  7. Data reveal that post-translational modifications of beta-catenin in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway yield a truncated beta-catenin molecule containing a serine 552-phosphorylated core region without N and C termini. This proteolytic processing of beta-catenin is required for binding with TCF4 and subsequent transcriptional activation. PMID: 29330435
  8. Results identify CTNNB1 as a Girdin-interacting protein. Girdin-depleted skin cancer cells displayed scattering and impaired E-cadherin-specific cell-cell adhesion. PMID: 30194792
  9. the dysregulation of TET2/E-cadherin/beta-catenin regulatory loop is a critical oncogenic event in HCC progression PMID: 29331390
  10. High CTNNB1 expression is associated with bladder cancer progression. PMID: 30015971
  11. It has been found that miR-27a-3p modulated the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous carcinoma stem cells by down-regulating SFRP1. PMID: 28425477
  12. Beta-catenin pathway is activated by CBX8 in in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 29066512
  13. our data provide a novel evidence for the biological and clinical significance of SPAG5 as a potential biomarker, and we demonstrate that SPAG5-b-catenin-SCARA5 might be a novel pathway involved in hepatocellular carcinoma progression. PMID: 30249289
  14. Results show that hypoxia enhanced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of beta-catenin which promotes expression of EMT-related genes and eventually contributes to the metastatic process in lung cancer cells. PMID: 30396950
  15. This study demonstrates that FOXC1 induces cancer stem cells (CSCs)-like properties in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by promoting beta-catenin expression. The findings indicate that FOXC1 is a potential molecular target for anti-CSC-based therapies in NSCLC PMID: 30189871
  16. High TBL1XR1 expression indicates poor disease-free survival of stage I-III colorectal cancer patients; beta-catenin signaling is critical for TBL1XR1-mediated colorectal cancer cells oncogenicity. PMID: 28295012
  17. Taking together, these results suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signal pathway activation-dependent up-regulation of syncytin-1 contributes to the pro-inflammatory factor TNF-alpha-enhanced fusion between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells. PMID: 28112190
  18. The disassociation of the beta-catenin/E-cadherin complex in the osteoblast membrane under stretch loading and the subsequent translocation of beta-catenin into the nucleus may be an intrinsic mechanical signal transduction mechanism. PMID: 29901167
  19. Aberrant CTNNB1 expression was seen in a substantial proportion of our hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases. CTNNB1-positive HCC was associated with normal AFP levels, unicentric tumors, well-differentiated histology, and an unfavorable outcome. PMID: 30082549
  20. Long noncoding RNA AFAP1-AS1 enhances cell proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma through regulating miR-4695-5p/TCF4-beta-catenin signaling. PMID: 29901121
  21. High CTNNB1 expression is associated with the recurrece of Adamantinomatous Craniopharyngiomas. PMID: 29625497
  22. High CTNNB1 expression is associated with uterine fibroids. PMID: 29066531
  23. The nucleus and/or cytoplasm expression of beta-catenin was associated with tumor progression and correlated overall survival of patients with ovarian cancer (OC). beta-catenin may be a possible potential prognostic biomarker for the patients with OC. [review] PMID: 30103006
  24. In the two wild type (WT) cases, two novel alterations were detected: a complex deletion of APC and a pathogenic mutation of LAMTOR2. Focusing on WT DT subtype, deep sequencing of CTNNB1, APC and LAMTOR2 was conducted on a retrospective series of 11 WT DT using a targeted approach PMID: 29901254
  25. DLX1 interacted with beta-catenin and enhanced the interaction between beta-catenin and TCF4 T-cell factor PMID: 29317218
  26. Nuclear beta-catenin immunoreactivity with appropriate criteria may be helpful to distinguish basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) from histologically similar tumors. However, a minor subset of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) with nuclear beta-catenin expression require careful diagnosis. PMID: 29496310
  27. High CTNNB1 expression is associated with metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID: 30193944
  28. beta;-catenin directly interacts with the Cx43 carboxyl-terminal domain. PMID: 29882937
  29. This study showed that beta-catenin expression was the most evident in the nucleus rather than in cytoplasm. PMID: 29297710
  30. Nuclear beta-catenin accumulation in non-mitotic glioblastoma cells is due to a feed forward mechanism between DOCK4 and beta-catenin. PMID: 28925399
  31. Study found that HIF1alpha overexpression led to an enhanced betacatenin nuclear translocation, while betacatenin silencing inhibited betacatenin nuclear translocation. The enhanced betacatenin nuclear translocation induced resulted in an enhanced cell proliferation and cell invasion, an altered cell cycle distribution, decreased apoptosis, and improved nonhomologous end joining repair under normal and irradiation cond... PMID: 29658569
  32. our results demonstrated that miR-188 inhibits glioma cell proliferation by targeting beta-catenin PMID: 29268818
  33. Marked upregulation of beta-catenin and its downstream targets effectively enhanced hepatosphere formation, with an associated induction of CD133, OCT4 and Sox2 expression and also caused an significant enhancement of HCC proliferation PMID: 29792038
  34. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by regulating the invasion and proliferation of trophoblast. PMID: 29603045
  35. Associations between environmental variants together with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of beta-catenin (ctnnb1) and lung cancer risk were analyzed using a logistic regression model. PMID: 29562493
  36. that CTNNB1 is overexpressed and confers a poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia PMID: 29496308
  37. High CTNNB1 expression is associated with cisplatin-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 30009824
  38. beta-catenin immunopositivity is seen in majority of cases of sinonasal sarcoma PMID: 29566950
  39. For the first time, we demonstrated that rather than excluding lymphocytes infiltration as reported in mela-noma, high levels of TILs were associated with beta-catenin overexpression in BC. PMID: 29286921
  40. Study shows that apigenin-induced lysosomal degradation of beta-catenin in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. PMID: 28337019
  41. Used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to study effect of knockout of catenin beta 1 (CTNNB1) on cell behavior and signal pathways in HEK293 cells. Results showed knockout of CTNNB1 effected Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and suppressed adhesion and proliferation of HEK 293T cells. PMID: 29249062
  42. our results also revealed that lncRNA SNHG20 knockdown inhibited Wnt/b catenin signaling activity by suppressing beta-catenin expression and reversing the downstream target gene expression. Taken together, lncRNA SNHG20 plays an pivotal role in ovarian cancer progression by regulating Wnt/b-catenin signaling PMID: 29101241
  43. Wnt3A regulates the expression of 1,136 genes, of which 662 are upregulated and 474 are downregulated in CCD-18Co cells. A set of genes encoding inhibitors of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway stand out among those induced by Wnt3A, which suggests that there is a feedback inhibitory mechanism. PMID: 29044515
  44. The aim of our study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of beta-catenin, E-cadherin and Snail, depending on clinico-morphological aspects of the laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Results revealed variable E-cadherin, beta-catenin and Snail expression, depending on differentiation degree and tumor stage. PMID: 29250652
  45. In this study we showed that the activation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway culminates in the upregulation of MGAT1 enzyme both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also showed that overexpression of the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) increased the promoter activity of MGAT1. PMID: 29310626
  46. CTNNB1 mutation is associated with acquired resistance to KIT inhibitor in metastatic melanoma. PMID: 28421416
  47. three CTNNB1 SNPs were suggested to have the potential to be novel biomarkers for risk prediction of cancer in overall population or some specific subgroups. [Review] PMID: 28963373
  48. A CTNNB1 exon 3 mutation restricted to the areas exhibiting both positive glutamine synthetase (GS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression, whereas wild-type CTNNB1 was found in areas showing only CRP staining. These two cases illustrate focal beta-catenin activation that can occur within Inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma (IHCAs). PMID: 28618047
  49. Results show that E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex is disrupted by ICAT promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer cells. PMID: 29048651
  50. Toosendanin administration inhibited growth and liver metastasis of orthotopically implanted SGC7901 tumors in vivo through miR200amediated beta-catenin pathway. Our data suggest that Toosendanin may suppress oncogenic phenotypes of human GC cells partly via miR200a/beta-catenin axis. Hence, Toosendanin may have a promising chemotherapeutic activity for GC therapy. PMID: 29048657


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

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