Recombinant Human ApoM Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0246

Recombinant Human ApoM Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0246
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Human
Accession NP_061974.2
Synonym apo-M, DADB-127H9.5, G3a, HSPC336, NG20
Background ApoM (apolipoprotein M) is an apolipoprotein and member of the lipocalin protein family. The lipocalins share limited regions of sequence homology and a common tertiary structure architecture. They have an eight-stranded, antiparallel, symmetrical _-barrel fold, which is in essence a beta sheet which has been rolled into a cylindrical shape. Inside this barrel is located a ligand binding site. They transport small hydrophobic molecules such as steroids, bilins, retinoids, and lipids. Lipocalins have been associated with many biological processes, among them immune response, pheromone transport, biological prostaglandin synthesis, retinoid binding, and cancer cell interactions. Lipocalins are comparatively small in size, and are thus less complicated to study as opposed to large, bulky proteins. They can also bind to various ligands for different biological purposes. ApoM is associated with high density lipoproteins and to a lesser extent with low density lipoproteins and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. ApoM is involved in lipid transport and can bind sphingosine-1-phosphate, myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid, retinol, all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human APOM (NP_061974.2) (Cys23-Asn188) was expressed with a His tag at the C-terminus.
Source Yeast
Predicted N Terminal Cys 23
AA Sequence Cys23-Asn188
Molecular Weight The recombinant human APOM consists 176 a.a. and predicts a molecular mass of 19.9 kDa.
Purity >(16.9+20.2+55.5)% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Please contact us for more information.
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile PBS, 40 % Glycerol..
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Probably involved in lipid transport. Can bind sphingosine-1-phosphate, myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid, retinol, all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid.
Subcellular Location Secreted. Note=Present in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and to a lesser extent in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLP) and low density lipoproteins (LDL).
Protein Families Calycin superfamily, Lipocalin family
Database References
Tissue Specificity Plasma protein. Expressed in liver and kidney.

Gene Functions References

  1. Obese patients showed significantly lower plasmatic ApoM levels than people with normal body weight, and ApoM level showed a strong correlation with CRP, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 levels, which indicated that ApoM might be regulated by these inflammatory factors. PMID: 30110274
  2. These results demonstrated that ApoM protein mass were clearly higher in the NSCLC tissues than in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. Overexpression of ApoM could promote NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, which might be via upregulating S1PR1 and activating the ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. PMID: 29750961
  3. results do not suggest a diagnostic role for ApoM plasma levels in patients with primary VTE. Moreover, the current study suggests that role of ApoM as a risk factor may differ for primary VTE and recurrent VTE in male patients. PMID: 28914078
  4. These S1P-induced enhancements in growth factors and chemotactic cytokines in retinal pigment epithelium cells were significantly inhibited by ApoM treatment. Additionally, in vivo experiments using a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) murine model demonstrated that intravitreal ApoM injection significantly reduced the progression of CNV formation. PMID: 29301231
  5. The potential of mean force for sphingosine-1-phosphate unbinding from apoM reflected a large binding strength of more than 60 kJ/mol. This high unbinding free energy for sphingosine-1-phosphate underlines the observed specificity of the physiological effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate as it suggests that the spontaneous release of sphingosine-1-phosphate from apoM is unlikely. PMID: 27476912
  6. results demonstrated that lower APOM levels in SLE patients and correlated with disease activity. PMID: 28476116
  7. Sequenced the ApoM gene in recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and identified six polymorphisms. ApoM rs805297 was significantly associated with higher risk of VTE recurrence in male but not in female patients. PMID: 27277397
  8. Single nucleotide polymorphism in ApoM gene is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID: 28927745
  9. ApoM T-855C and T-778C polymorphisms were found to be associated with obesity by regulating HDL metabolism, and the T alleles of apoM T-778C were shown to be more strongly correlated. PMID: 28245483
  10. liver mRNA levels of apoM and apoA1 decreased strongly upon sepsis induction. PMID: 26990127
  11. 17beta-estradiol induced up-regulation of apoM in HepG2 cells is through an ER-alpha-dependent pathway involving ER-alpha binding element in the promoter of the apoM gene. PMID: 28359281
  12. A shift in ApoM/sphingosine 1-phosphate between HDL-particles in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus Is associated with impaired anti-inflammatory effects of the ApoM/S1P complex. PMID: 28385702
  13. ApoM-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate regulates adhesion molecule abundance, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and endothelial barrier function via sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor1. PMID: 27879252
  14. HDL-associated ApoM is anti-apoptotic by delivering sphingosine 1-phosphate to S1P1 and S1P3 receptors on vascular endothelium. PMID: 28179022
  15. Plasma apoM concentrations are higher in patients with hyperlipidaemia than in healthy controls. Low plasma apoM levels in patients with T2DM are likely caused by diabetes but are not induced by hyperlipidaemia. PMID: 27633510
  16. The polymorphism C-724del in the promoter region of the apoM gene could confer the risk of T2DM among eastern Han Chinese. Unfortunately, the lowing of plasma apoM levels of C-724del mutant allele carriers compared with the wide-type homozygotes carriers in T2DM patients was not statistically different in present study, so further researchs were needed by enlarging the sample PMID: 27576735
  17. ApoM rs805296 polymorphism may be a risk factor for developing coronary artery disease [meta-analysis] PMID: 26723879
  18. ApoM/HDL-C and apoM/apoA1 ratios could be used as indicators for identification of DN from healthy people and from T2DM patients. PMID: 28073663
  19. ApoM may be a biomarker of coronary artery disease. ApoM-855 T-->C substitution provides binding sites for AP-2alpha and reduces ApoM transcription activity PMID: 27841911
  20. Data indicate significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs805296) of apolipoprotein M (ApoM) and the susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) among Chinese Han population in Lanzhou. PMID: 27412944
  21. Serum apolipoprotein M was elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and increased gradually with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity. PMID: 27001252
  22. ApoM is excreted in the urine of children after cardiac surgery in children with acute kidney injury PMID: 26642098
  23. Hyperglycemia-induced downregulation of apolipoprotein M expression is not via the hexosamine pathway. PMID: 26377577
  24. ApoM is highly expressed in renal proximal tubule cells and is usually reabsorbed by giantin-associated proteins in a process, which is also affected in kidney disease. PMID: 25901639
  25. our findings present supportive evidence that ApoM is a regulator of human LRH-1 transcription, and further reveal the importance of ApoM as a critical regulator of bile acids metabolism PMID: 25987835
  26. -724 I/D polymorphism decreases the apoM promoter activity, down-regulates the apoM protein expression level, and increases the risk of myocardial infarction PMID: 25637426
  27. these findings demonstrated that apoM suppressed TNF-alpha-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 through inhibiting the activity of NF-kappaB. PMID: 26057873
  28. role of apoM in lipid metabolism and cardiometabolic diseases.(48-55) PMID: 25551802
  29. ApoM levels differ according to country of birth and are associated with IR and T2DM only in native-born Swedes, not Iraqis living in Sweden. PMID: 24984825
  30. Binary logistic regression analysis suggested that both apoM and apoAI mRNA may considered as independent risk factors for fetal macrosomia PMID: 25194312
  31. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. PMID: 25144649
  32. Single nucleotide polymorphism in APOM is associated with lung cancer. PMID: 25187487
  33. the apolipoprotein M/HDL pathway may have a role in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema [meta-analysis] PMID: 23900982
  34. Decreased activities of apolipoprotein m promoter are associated with the susceptibility to coronary artery diseases. PMID: 24578614
  35. the functional single-nucleotide polymorphism APOM rs805297 G/T variant allele was associated with rheumatoid arthritis risk PMID: 23660425
  36. The apolipoprotein M rs805297 SNP is not associated with an increased risk for developing coronary artery disease, although it does independently correlate with dyslipidemia in Han Chinese individuals. PMID: 24341666
  37. Apolipoprotein M T-778C polymorphism is associated with serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease in the Chinese population. (Meta-analysis) PMID: 24040766
  38. Data indicate that palmitic acid induced suppression of apolipoprotein M (APOM) expression is mediated via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) pathway. PMID: 24508264
  39. The unique apoM/S1P-enriched plasma HDL may serve to deliver S1P to extrahepatic tissues for atheroprotection and may have other as yet unidentified functions. PMID: 24318881
  40. Apolipoprotein M as a chaperone for sphingosine-1-phosphate. [Review] PMID: 23652568
  41. Livers are involved in S1P dynamism, and it was suggested that apoM, produced from livers, increases circulating plasma S1P by augmenting the S1P output from livers and modifies extracellular S1P metabolism. PMID: 23664237
  42. Vascular endothelial growth factor downregulates apolipoprotein M expression PMID: 22877565
  43. Data support that the APOM C-1065A polymorphism is associated with increased risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis and dyslipidaemia in RA patients. PMID: 23190940
  44. The APOM gene rs707921 and rs707922 single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with some serum lipid parameters. PMID: 23086303
  45. These data suggest that the plasma clearance of apoM, despite apoM primarily being associated with HDL, is influenced by LDL receptor-mediated clearance of apoB-containing particles. PMID: 22826357
  46. The present study demonstrated that apoM expression could be elevated by ABCA1 via the RXR/LXR pathway and LRH1 does not involve in the regulation of apoM by the activation of ABCA1, although the direct regulative pathway(s) between ABCA1 and apoM gene is still unknown yet. PMID: 22516753
  47. ApoM can bind oxidized phospholipids, increasing the antioxidant effect of HDL. PMID: 22204862
  48. Report plasma levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate and apolipoprotein M in patients with monogenic disorders of HDL metabolism. PMID: 21944699
  49. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism at the promoter region of the APOM gene is associated with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 21844665
  50. Raised ApoM levels in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may in turn suppress HBV replication PMID: 21875437


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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