Recombinant Human AKR1C4 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0119

Recombinant Human AKR1C4 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0119
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Human
Accession AAH20744.1
Synonym 3-alpha-HSD, AKR1C4, C11, CDR, CHDR, DD-4, DD4, HAKRA
Background Aldo-keto reductases comprise of AKR1C1-AKR1C4, four enzymes that catalyze NADPH dependent reductions and have been implicated in biosynthesis, intermediary metabolism, and detoxification. there is a strong correlation between the expression levels of these family members and the malignant transformation as well as the resistance to cancer therapy. Type I human hepatic 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C4) plays a significant role in bile acid biosynthesis, steroid hormone metabolism, and xenobiotic metabolism.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human AKR1C4 (AAH20744.1) (Met1-Tyr323) was expressed with a His tag at the N-terminus.
Source E.coli
Predicted N Terminal His
AA Sequence Met1-Tyr323
Molecular Weight The recombinant human AKR1C4 consists of 341 a.a. and predicts a molecular mass of 39.4 KDa. It migrates as an approximately 35-40 KDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.
Purity >85% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin Please contact us for more information.
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile PBS, pH 7.4..
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Cytosolic aldo-keto reductase that catalyzes the NADH and NADPH-dependent reduction of ketosteroids to hydroxysteroids. Liver specific enzyme that acts as NAD(P)(H)-dependent 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductase on the steroid nucleus and side chain. Displays the ability to catalyze both oxidation and reduction in vitro, but most probably acts as a reductase in vivo since the oxidase activity measured in vitro is inhibited by physiological concentration of NADPH. Acts preferentially as a 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) with a subsidiary 3-beta-HSD activity. Catalyzes efficiently the transformation of the potent androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT or 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one) into the less active form, 5-alpha-androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Catalyzes the reduction of estrone into 17beta-estradiol but with low efficiency. Metabolizes a broad spectrum of natural and synthetic therapeutic steroid and plays an important role in metabolism of androgens, estrogens, progestereone and conjugated steroids. Catalyzes the biotransformation of the pesticide chlordecone (kepone) to its corresponding alcohol leading to increased biliary excretion of the pesticide and concomitant reduction of its neurotoxicity since bile is the major excretory route.
Subcellular Location Cytoplasm, cytosol.
Protein Families Aldo/keto reductase family
Database References
Associated Diseases 46,XY sex reversal 8 (SRXY8)
Tissue Specificity Liver specific.

Gene Functions References

  1. the present study suggests that AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, and AKR1C4 are closely associated with drug resistance to both CDDP and 5FU, and that mefenamic acid, an inhibitor of AKR1C, restores sensitivity through inhibition of drug-resistance in human cancer cells. PMID: 28259989
  2. Studies indicate that mutations in aldo-keto reductase family 1 (AKR1) enzymes AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID: 24189185
  3. In women only, SNPs in AKR1C4 reduced the likelihood of having exhibited paranoid ideation by circa 60%. PMID: 22356824
  4. Low progesterone levels and a cystine to serine change at position 145 in AKR1C4 gene are associated with manic/hypomanic irritability in males PMID: 21570127
  5. role of AKR1C4 in the metabolism of testosterone and progesterone via the 5beta-reductase pathway. PMID: 21521174
  6. Taken together, we conclude that the cell-type-specific expression of DD4 mRNA is regulated by vHNF-1-C. PMID: 12220531
  7. the expression level of DD4 mRNA is cooperatively regulated by the amounts of HNF-1 alpha, HNF-4 alpha and HNF-4 gamma. PMID: 12544512
  8. Impact of mirtazapine on the activity of a key neurosteroidogenic enzyme, the 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD), and on the levels of neuroactive steroids in relation to clinical response in depression. PMID: 16344854
  9. Structure determination of human AKR1C4 and homology modelling of AKR1D1 followed by docking experiments were used to explore active site geometries. PMID: 19013211


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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