Recombinant Human Acid Phosphatase / HAAP Protein (GST Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0048

Recombinant Human Acid Phosphatase / HAAP Protein (GST Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-0048
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Product Overview

Host Species Human
Accession AAI06012.1
Synonym HAAP
Background The low molecular weight phosphotyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP), also known as Acid phosphatase 1 (ACP1), belongs to the low molecular weight phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase family are involved in the regulation of important physiological functions, including stress resistance and synthesis of the polysaccharide capsule. ACP1/LMW-PTP is an enzyme involved in platelet-derived growth factor-induced mitogenesis and cytoskeleton rearrangement. LMW-PTP is able to specifically bind and dephosphorylate activated PDGF receptor, thus modulating PDGF-induced mitogenesis. In vitro, LMW-PTP was found to efficiently dephosphorylate activated FcgammaRIIA and LAT, but not Syk or phospholipase Cgamma2. The overexpression of LMW-PTP inhibited activation of Syk downstream of FcgammaRIIA and reduced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. It been demonstrated that LMW-PTP is responsible for FcgammaRIIA dephosphorylation, and is implicated in the down-regulation of cell activation mediated by this ITAM-bearing immunoreceptor. In addition, ACP1 is a highly polymorphic phosphatase that is especially abundant in the central nervous system and is known to be involved in several signal transduction pathways.
Description A DNA sequence encoding human ACP1 (AAI06012.1) (Met 1-His 158) was fused with the GST tag at the N-terminus.
Source E.coli
Predicted N Terminal Met
AA Sequence Met 1-His 158
Molecular Weight The recombinant human ACP1/GST chimera consists of 384 a.a. and predicts a molecular mass of 44.3 kDa. The apparent molecular mass of rh ACP1 is approximately 40 kDa in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.
Purity >88% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin Please contact us for more information.
Bioactivity Measured by its ability to cleave a substrate, pNitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). The specific activity is >65,000 pmol/min/ug.
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile 50mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, pH 8.0.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Acts on tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, low-MW aryl phosphates and natural and synthetic acyl phosphates. Isoform 3 does not possess phosphatase activity.
Subcellular Location Cytoplasm.
Protein Families Low molecular weight phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase family
Database References
Tissue Specificity T-lymphocytes express only isoform 2.

Gene Functions References

  1. ACP1 may have an important role in regulation of the multiple systems associated with suicide. PMID: 28668716
  2. Conditioned medium from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with total knockdown of LMW-PTP, but not of slow isoform LMW-PTP, significantly reduced osteoclast differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells. PMID: 29187443
  3. results confirm the role of TPH1, TPH2, 5HT2A, CRHR1 and ACP1 variants in the risk of suicidal behavior. PMID: 27479537
  4. These data support that PTPN22 1858C/T, PTPRJ 2965C/G and 1176 A/C polymorphisms and ACP1 A, B and C alleles are not associated with a higher risk of immune thrombocytopenia P in adults. PMID: 27309885
  5. The LMW-PTP slow isoform can be an important protein in bone metastatic disease, with a fundamental role in the interplay between tumor cells and osteoclasts, through the regulation of Src activity and IL-8 secretion. PMID: 27127127
  6. Overexpression of LMWPTP in prostate cancer confers a malignant phenotype with worse clinical outcome. PMID: 26159288
  7. ADA6, PTPN22 and ACP1 are involved in immune reactions: since endometriosis has an autoimmune component. PMID: 26216523
  8. LMPTP expression increases in end-stage heart failure in humans PMID: 26213100
  9. Suggest that hypermethylation of ACP1, BMP4, and TSPYL5 are common events in HCC and could be used as potentially detectable biomarkers in HCC tissues. PMID: 26386860
  10. the present study found that the ACP1*C allele, previously associated with an increased vulnerability to infectious/parasitic diseases may also be able to shape behavioral immune defenses by interaction with the level of E. PMID: 24933463
  11. Association of an increased risk of coronary artery disease, especially in females, with ACP1 polymorphisms. PMID: 25846885
  12. ACP1 knockdown attenuates effects of osmotic stress in HaCaT cells, mainly in the status of Src kinase, Rac and STAT5 phosphorylation and activity. PMID: 25781955
  13. The rs3828329 of ACP1 gene is also a risk factor of CAD in Han Chinese females aged 65 years and older. PMID: 25123136
  14. ACP1 polymorphism is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 25125338
  15. In ACP1 *B/*C genotype, which shows the highest enzymatic activity, spermatic concentration is significantly lower and atypical spermatozoa are significantly more frequent as compared to other ACP1 genotypes. PMID: 23278455
  16. In Class 3 people the combination of high ACP f-isozyme concentration and the ADA*2 allele, lowers the rate of glycolysis that may reduce the amount of metabolic calories and activates Sirtuin genes that protect cells against age-related diseases. PMID: 23959645
  17. certain genotypes of ACP1 associated with high phosphatase activity may increase the T-cell response to PF4-heparin complexes, with higher levels of circulating antibodies PMID: 23621699
  18. A significant increase of PTPN22 *T allele in endometriosis is observed in women carrying ACP1*C allele, in women carrying p53 codon 72 *Pro allele PMID: 23453606
  19. clarification of the importance of ACP1 in carcinogenesis through the analysis of LMW-PTP interaction with different substrates [review] PMID: 23584899
  20. The data suggest an interaction between p53 codon 72 and ACP wherein a positive effect of the p53 *Pro allele on susceptibility to coronary artery disease occurs. PMID: 23197232
  21. mRNA expression of the slow isoform was increased in breast cancer and that of the fast isoform was reduced in breast cancer. PMID: 23645747
  22. balanced redox-state is required for VEGF to facilitate reversible S-glutathionylation of LMW-PTP, FAK activation and endothelial cell migration PMID: 22854047
  23. lack of association with inflammatory bowel disease in Spanish patients PMID: 22428720
  24. There is a significant association between acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1) and cancer grade, mainly due to ACP(1) genotypes carrying the *C allele that are much less represented in patients with low grade when compared with those with high grade. PMID: 22692348
  25. the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. PMID: 21423239
  26. Data indicate that ACP1 rs11553742*T with increased susceptibility in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. PMID: 22064183
  27. Gain of the telomeric region 2p25.3 harboring the ACP1 gene is common in CLL (25%, 44 of 178 cases). PMID: 22035742
  28. the ACP1*C allele influences the risk of cardiovascular disease events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 21767392
  29. Although both variants dephosphorylate the EPHA2 receptor, the rate and specificity of dephosphorylation for specific tyrosines are different for ACP1 and human cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase-B. PMID: 21538645
  30. investigated hypothesis that favism is caused by toxic Vicia faba substances, which in some ACP1 phenotypes cause increased phosphorylation and thus increased glycolysis, with strong reduction in reduced glutathione production, resulting in hemolysis PMID: 21644204
  31. In overweight women (BMI > 25), the proportion of low activity ACP1 phenotypes is much lower in type 1 diabetes than in gestational diabetes and in healthy females. PMID: 19855922
  32. the correlation between blood glucose and glycated Hb in relation to AK1 and ACP1 polymorphism was studied. PMID: 20152999
  33. Type 1 diabetes subjects show a highly significant increase of ACP1*A/ADA1*2 gametic type compared with healthy subjects from the same population (P = 0.003). PMID: 20805743
  34. association with coronary artery disease evident only in diabetic subjects and dependent on female gender PMID: 20581655
  35. A significant interaction between ACP1 and ADA1 concerning susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, was revealed. PMID: 19789510
  36. ACP1 is associated with allergy PMID: 12100313
  37. Association of the ACP1 genotype with metabolic parameters upon initial diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. PMID: 12640337
  38. LMW-PTP has a role in immunological synapse establishment and stabilization through the negative control of FAK activity and of cell surface receptor redistribution PMID: 12815062
  39. The analysis involved the data on nine polymorphic codominant loci: HP, GC, TF, PI, PGM1, GLO1, C3, ACP1, and ESD. The loci were selected by significance of differences in genotype frequencies between tuberculosis patients and healthy controls PMID: 12942785
  40. We show that the association of STAT5 and LMW-PTP does not exclusively involve the phosphatase active site and phosphotyrosine residue of STAT5. PMID: 14637146
  41. acid phosphatase 1 contributes to the clinical manifestations of type 2 diabetes and probably also have a marginal influence on susceptibility to the disease PMID: 15281007
  42. complex interaction among maternal age, sex of infant and ACP1 concerning age at diagnosis of diabetes PMID: 15586390
  43. Finds ACP1*C is a recessively deleterious allele that reduces viability during early life stages and is not maintained by overdominant selection in European populations. PMID: 15974295
  44. Significant correlations between LMW-PTP overexpression and the most common clinical-pathological features of cancers exist. In colon cancer and neuroblastoma increased total LMW-PTP mRNA expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. PMID: 16036221
  45. Crystal structure of the second human low molecular weight PTPase isoenzyme provides the opportunity to examine the structural basis of different substrate and inhibitor/activator responses. PMID: 16253994
  46. mother/newborn pairs: ACP1 (acid phosphatase 1)distribution has fewer pairs with maternal low ACP1 S isoform and infant high S isoform concentration;Recurrent spontaneous abortion couples show wife low S isoform and husband high S isoform concentration PMID: 16762482
  47. GRX plays an important role in PDGF-BB-dependent cell proliferation by regulating the redox state of LMW-PTP PMID: 16893901
  48. Among newborns carrying the ACP1C allele there is an increase of Sex Ratio among the offspring of smoking mothers relative to non-smoking mothers. PMID: 16973312
  49. Human recombinant LMWPTP-A displayed an RN5Pase activity that was higher than its tyrosine phosphatase activity, indicating that this phosphatase may participate in protein deglycation, a new form of protein repair. PMID: 17472574
  50. results suggest a cooperative effect of ADA and ACP1 genetic polymorphism on the susceptibility to repeated spontaneous abortion and to some of its clinical characteristics PMID: 17565542


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

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