Recombinant Mouse Fractalkine / CX3CL1 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-2137

Recombinant Mouse Fractalkine / CX3CL1 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-2137
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Mouse
Accession O35188
Synonym AB030188, ABCD-3, AI848747, CX3C, Cxc3, D8Bwg0439e, Scyd1
Background Fractalkine or Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is a member of the CX3C chemokine family. Fractalkine / CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine that functions not only as a chemoattractant but also as an adhesion molecule and is expressed on endothelial cells activated by proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 is expressed in a membrane-bound form on activated endothelial cells and mediates attachment and firm adhesion of T cells, monocytes and NK cells. Fractalkine / CX3CL1 is associated with dendritic cells (DC) in epidermis and lymphoid organs. The fractalkine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed on cytotoxic effector lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which contain high levels of intracellular perforin and granzyme B, and on macrophages. Soluble fractalkine causes migration of NK cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and macrophages, whereas the membrane-bound form captures and enhances the subsequent migration of these cells in response to secondary stimulation with other chemokines.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the mouse Cx3cl1 (O35188) (Gln25-Lys105) was expressed with a His tag at the C-terminus.
Source Yeast
Predicted N Terminal Gln 25
AA Sequence Gln25-Lys105
Molecular Weight The recombinant mouse Cx3cl1 consists of 91 a.a. and predicts a molecular mass of 10.7 kDa.
Purity >95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Please contact us for more information.
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile PBS,PH7.4..
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Chemokine that acts as a ligand for both CX3CR1 and integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 and ITGA4:ITGB1. The CX3CR1-CX3CL1 signaling exerts distinct functions in different tissue compartments, such as immune response, inflammation, cell adhesion and chemotaxis. Regulates leukocyte adhesion and migration processes at the endothelium. Can activate integrins in both a CX3CR1-dependent and CX3CR1-independent manner. In the presence of CX3CR1, activates integrins by binding to the classical ligand-binding site (site 1) in integrins. In the absence of CX3CR1, binds to a second site (site 2) in integrins which is distinct from site 1 and enhances the binding of other integrin ligands to site 1.; The soluble form is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes, but not for neutrophils.; The membrane-bound form promotes adhesion of those leukocytes to endothelial cells.
Subcellular Location Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.; [Processed fractalkine]: Secreted.
Protein Families Intercrine delta family
Database References
Tissue Specificity Highest levels in brain. Lower levels in kidney, heart and lung. Also found in skeletal muscle and testis. Highly expressed in lesional smooth muscle cells, but not macrophages.

Gene Functions References

  1. The data of this study suggested that overexpression of only chemokine domain of CX3CL1 does not protect against tau pathology. PMID: 30253780
  2. the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis contributes to the proliferative and pro-inflammatory effects of Ang II in VSMCs. PMID: 29356931
  3. that CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling is a molecular mechanism capable of modulating microglial-mediated degeneration PMID: 27314452
  4. CXCR4(+) CD45(-) bone marrow cells are niche forming for osteoclastogenesis via the SDF-1, CXCL7, and CX3CL1 signaling pathways in bone marrow. PMID: 27339271
  5. Increased fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 may cause a cross-talk between activated glial cells and neurons, playing an important role in the development of neuroinflammation in fructose-fed mice. PMID: 26765996
  6. miR-223 controls the expression of CX3CL1 by targeting HDAC2 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and mouse models of the disease. PMID: 26864305
  7. in this study, CX3CL1 is identified as a novel substrate of MMP-19 PMID: 26555704
  8. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 system is essential for restricting coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. PMID: 28800592
  9. changes in GSK-3beta activity and/or levels regulate the production and subsequent secretion of fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the immune response that has been linked to AD and to other different neurological disorders. PMID: 27832289
  10. Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) interneurons secrete fractalkine that promotes genesis of oligodendrocytes from glially biased cortical precursors in culture. Moreover, when MGE interneurons are genetically ablated in vivo prior to their migration, this causes a deficit in cortical oligodendrogenesis. PMID: 28472653
  11. our findings reveal a previously unknown regulatory role for LRRK2 in CX3CR1 signalling and suggest that an increase of CX3CR1 activity contributes to the attenuated inflammatory responses in Lrrk2-null microglia PMID: 27378696
  12. a crucial role of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in experimental colitis, in particular for intestinal leukocyte recruitment during murine colitis, is reported. PMID: 27942903
  13. These results strongly suggest the involvement of CX3CL1 in the migration of osteoclast precursors and osteoclastogenesis. PMID: 27579490
  14. Authors provide evidence that interactions between CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 play crucial roles in determining the number of M1 macrophages within the skin of mice, which in turn can have dramatic effects on psoriasis-like inflammation. PMID: 26976687
  15. In the absence of the rd8 allele, deficiency of CCR2 and CX3CL1 in mice leads to a mild form of retinal degeneration which is associated with the recruitment of macrophages, particularly to the subretinal space. This model enables to assess consequences of perturbed chemokine signaling, but it does not recapitulate cardinal age-related macular degeneration features. PMID: 26670885
  16. Also icariin reduced CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 protein levels in the artery wall. In conclusion, icariin could be a potential anti-atherosclerosis agent by downregulating the expression of CX3CR1. PMID: 26802470
  17. The biological activity of CX3CL1 is regulated by conversion of a membrane integrated to a soluble form during neurogenesis and in response to pathologic changes in the adult retinal milieu. PMID: 25191897
  18. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling is involved in LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the rodent spinal dorsal horn PMID: 25768734
  19. CX3CL1/CX3CR1-mediated microglial activation plays a detrimental role in ischemic brain via p38MAPK/PKC signaling PMID: 25966946
  20. Cx3cl1 overexpression suppresses alpha-synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID: 25195598
  21. IFN-gamma induces aberrant CD49b+ NK cell recruitment and pregnancy failure through regulating CX3CL1. PMID: 25375377
  22. Insulin resistance increases plaque vulnerability by augmenting the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis, which is mechanistically linked to reduced vascular smooth muscle cell survival PMID: 24788416
  23. Together, these studies challenge the "frustrated phagocytosis" concept and suggest that neuronal-microglial communication link the two central AD pathologies. PMID: 25209291
  24. CX3CL1 may contribute to the regulation of toxigenic C. difficile infection. PMID: 24362517
  25. These results demonstrate that the de novo CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis plays a pivotal role in osteoclast recruitment and subsequent bone resorption PMID: 24401612
  26. our data suggest that the CX3CR1/ CX3CL1 pathway is involved in the recruitment of circulating CD16 thorn CX3CR1 thorn monocytes to the periprosthetic tissues. PMID: 24700421
  27. Data indicate that atopic dermatitis (AD) pathology and immune responses were profoundly decreased in CX3CR1-deficient mice and upon blocking CX3CL1-CX3CR1 interactions in wild-type mice. PMID: 24821910
  28. Loss of ACE2 exacerbates AngII-mediated inflammation, myocardial injury and dysfunction in ACE2-deficient hearts via activation of the CTGF-FKN-ERK and MMP signaling. PMID: 24161906
  29. CX3CL1 transiently potentiates NMDAR function though mechanisms involving A2AR activity and the release of D-serine. PMID: 23981568
  30. Interactions between CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may contribute to the development of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. PMID: 23470165
  31. HDACs and NF-kB signaling coordinate epithelial expression of CX3CL1 to promote mucosal antimicrobial defense through suppression of the mir-424-503 gene. PMID: 23724129
  32. carotid artery injury was associated with greater chemokine 1 CX3C expression in the acute phase followed by greater CX3C receptor 1 coexpressing smooth muscle-like cell content in later lesions and less neointima formation than in femoral arteries PMID: 23653073
  33. our data indicate an upregulation of fractalkine and downregulation of CX3CR1 in sepsis, which seems to be mediated by the transcripting factor NF-KappaB likely via reduced liberation of proinflammtory cytokines in the whole murine organism. PMID: 23026294
  34. Extracellular adenosine is an endogenous modulator of neuroinflammation that induces CX3CL1 at the chorid plexus. PMID: 22883932
  35. Fractalkine's essential role in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and atherosclerosis progression has been impressively described in mouse models. Review. PMID: 22739755
  36. Suggest that Ang-II induces functional CX(3)CL1 expression in arterial but not in venous endothelial cells. PMID: 23117657
  37. H(2)S hampers the progression of atherosclerosis in fat-fed apoE(-/-) mice and downregulates CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression on macrophages and in lesion plaques PMID: 22815945
  38. Hypoxic release of endothelial CX3CL1 induced SMC phenotypic switching from the contractile to the proliferative state. Inhibition of CX3CR1 prevented CX3CL1 stimulation of SMC proliferation and monolayer expansion. PMID: 23002075
  39. Fractalkine is expressed in early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions and supports monocyte recruitment via CX3CR1. PMID: 22916279
  40. Fractalkine induced cellular reactive oxygen species production and activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in mesangial cells, stimulating cell proliferation. PMID: 22564616
  41. Lipopolysaccharide induces monocyte-mesangial cell binding through the fractalkine/CX3CR1 system. PMID: 22564617
  42. findings that exogenous fractalkine reduces microglial motility and fails to protect neurons co-cultured with Cx3cr1-/- mixed glia suggest that fractalkine may act by interfering with toxic microglial-neuron interactions PMID: 22093090
  43. Fractalkine promotes myocardial injury and accelerates the progress of heart failure, which is associated with the activation of MAPKs. PMID: 21840883
  44. Structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. PMID: 21951685
  45. fractalkine-CX3CR1 axis contributes to kidney fibrosis in a hypertensive mouse model. PMID: 21451526
  46. Syk mediated chemotaxis toward CX3CL1 by regulating both Rac1/WAVE2 and Cdc42/WASP pathways, whereas Src family kinases were required for proper WASP tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID: 21388954
  47. Fractalkine attenuates excito-neurotoxicity via microglial clearance of damaged neurons and antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 expression PMID: 21071446
  48. CX3CR1-expressing macrophages are induced by CX3CL1/fractalkine to express heme oxygenase-1, thereby ameliorating Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. PMID: 21131421
  49. Fractalkine-induced depression of excitatory postsynaptic current is absent in cultures from adenosine A3 receptor-deficient mice but not in tissue from adenosine A1- or A2-receptor-deficient mice. PMID: 20570369
  50. The CX3CL1-CX3CR1 interaction inhibits inflammatory properties in Kupffer cells/macrophages and results in decreased liver inflammation and fibrosis. PMID: 20683935


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Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

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