Recombinant Human GDF-5 Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BL-1968NP
BL-1968NP: Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)
BL-1968NP: Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)

Recombinant Human GDF-5 Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BL-1968NP
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Product Overview

Description Recombinant Human Growth/Differentiation Factor 5 is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Ala382-Arg501 is expressed.
Accession P43026
Synonym Growth/differentiation factor 5; GDF-5; Bone morphogenetic protein 14; BMP-14; Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein 1; CDMP-1; Lipopolysaccharide-associated protein 4; LAP-4; LPS-associated protein 4; Radotermin; CDMP1
Gene Background Growth Differentiation Factor 5(GDF-5, BMP-14) is a member of the BMP family of TGFβ superfamily proteins. Human GDF-5, -6, and -7 are a defined subgroup of the BMP family. GDF-5 is synthesized as a homodimeric precursor protein consisting of a 354 amino acid (aa) Nterminal proregion and a 120 aa C-terminal mature peptide. Mature human GDF-5 shares 99% aa sequence identity with both mature mouse and rat GDF-5. GDF-5 signaling is mediated by formation of a heterodimeric complex consisting of a type 1 (BMPR-IB) and a type II (BMPR-IIor Activin RII) serine/threonine kinase receptor which results in the phosphorylation and activation of cytosolic Smad proteins (Smad1, 5, and 8). GDF-5 is involved in multiple developmental processes including limb generation, cartilage development, joint formation, bone morphogenesis, cell survival, and neuritogenesis. Inhibition of GDF-5 expression or alteration of its signaling can facilitate the development of osteoarthritis.
Molecular Mass 13.7 KDa
Apmol Mass 15 KDa, reducing conditions
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution of 4mM HCl.
Endotoxin Less than 0.1 ng/µg (1 EU/µg) as determined by LAL test.
Purity Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)
Biological Activity Not tested
Reconstitution Always centrifuge tubes before opening.Do not mix by vortex or pipetting.It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100μg/ml.Dissolve the lyophilized protein in 4mM HCl.Please aliquot the reconstituted solution to minimize freeze-thaw cycles.
Storage Lyophilized protein should be stored at ≤ -20°C, stable for one year after receipt.Reconstituted protein solution can be stored at 2-8°C for 2-7 days.Aliquots of reconstituted samples are stable at ≤ -20°C for 3 months.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature.Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature listed below.
Usage For Research Use Only

Target Details

Target Function Growth factor involved in bone and cartilage formation. During cartilage development regulates differentiation of chondrogenic tissue through two pathways. Firstly, positively regulates differentiation of chondrogenic tissue through its binding of high affinity with BMPR1B and of less affinity with BMPR1A, leading to induction of SMAD1-SMAD5-SMAD8 complex phosphorylation and then SMAD protein signaling transduction. Secondly, negatively regulates chondrogenic differentiation through its interaction with NOG. Required to prevent excessive muscle loss upon denervation. This function requires SMAD4 and is mediated by phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8. Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and mediates LPS-induced inflammatory response, including TNF secretion by monocytes.
Subcellular Location Secreted. Cell membrane.
Protein Families TGF-beta family
Database References
Associated Diseases Acromesomelic chondrodysplasia, Grebe type (AMDG); Acromesomelic chondrodysplasia, Hunter-Thompson type (AMDH); Brachydactyly C (BDC); Du Pan syndrome (DPS); Symphalangism, proximal 1B (SYM1B); Multiple synostoses syndrome 2 (SYNS2); Brachydactyly A2 (BDA2); Osteoarthritis 5 (OS5); Brachydactyly A1, C (BDA1C)
Tissue Specificity Predominantly expressed in long bones during embryonic development. Expressed in monocytes (at protein level).

Gene Functions References

  1. We found a strong association between the TT genotype and the risk of developing Knee Osteoarthritis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.12-2.8, p = 0.014), but not in the heterozygous TC state (OR = 1.56, CI 95% = 0.58-4.17, p = 0.367). PMID: 30044130
  2. study shows that there exists a relationship between GDF5 (SNP rs143383) and Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in our population. Second, we found for the first time that the genotype TT and the T allele were overly expressed in the patients and the fathers. More studies on the confirmation of this genetic marker for DDH are called for. PMID: 29797005
  3. Two Pakistani families with sequence variants in GDF5 and TRPS1 causing brachydactyly type C and tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type III are described. PMID: 29436063
  4. The dysfunctional gene GDF5 was successfully corrected in adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells using a pair of transcription activatorlike effector nucleases. PMID: 29393424
  5. No association has been found between GDF5 +104 T/C promoter polymorphism and osteoarthritis in the Eastern Turkey population. PMID: 28886316
  6. The results of the current study revealed that SNP rs143383 of GDF5 is a compelling risk factor for knee OA [Osteoarthritis] and that GDF5 has an etiological effect on the development of OA [Osteoarthritis]. PMID: 29056119
  7. A Study of IL-1beta, MMP-3, TGF-beta1, and GDF5 Polymorphisms and Their Association with Primary Frozen Shoulder in a Chinese Han Population PMID: 28676856
  8. BMP-14 rs143383 polymorphism reduced the susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis (OA) and hand OA not only in total analysis but also in subgroup analysis; BMP-14 rs143383 polymorphism may be a protective factor against OA occurrence PMID: 29049177
  9. The structure of Grem2-GDF5 complex has revealed a number of key findings for DAN-family mediated BMP2 inhibition. PMID: 27524626
  10. miR-615-3p negatively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of hLF cells through post-transcriptionally suppressing osteogenic regulators GDF5 and FOXO1. PMID: 28460412
  11. p38, c-jun, and NFkappaB pathways activated during intervertebral disc degeneration by IL-1beta but not GDF-5 PMID: 27391542
  12. GDF5 elicited significant (p < 0.05) changes in the expression of anabolic, catabolic and hypertrophic genes with several consistent effects in healthy donors and in OA patients PMID: 28481944
  13. GDF5 was up regulated in patients after chronic rhinosinusitis developing osteitis. PMID: 27888647
  14. Titanium (Ti) surface modification with the combination of hBMP-2 and hGDF-5 for the two growth factor-coated Ti implants can improve the clinical properties of implants for orthopedic and dental applications. PMID: 28124978
  15. he large array of modular enhancers for Gdf5 provide a new foundation for studying the spatial specificity of joint patterning in vertebrates, as well as new candidates for regulatory regions that may also influence osteoarthritis risk in human population PMID: 27902701
  16. The purpose of this study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and the reactivity to GDF5 (CDMP-1), called the morphogenetic protein-1, cartilage-derived, in lingual squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 27151703
  17. homozygous sequence variants in the GDF5 gene underlie acromesomelic dysplasia type-grebe in consanguineous families PMID: 27577507
  18. The prevention of IL-1Beta-induced nucleus pulposus extracellular matrix degeneration by miR-7 silencing was attenuated by GDF5 siRNA. PMID: 27583982
  19. Mutations in three genes (GDF5, NPR2, BMPR1B) have been reported to cause different forms of acromesomelic dysplasia PMID: 26926249
  20. we demonstrate that the transforming growth factor-beta1 and the growth differentiation factor 5 synergistically drive the nucleopulpogenic differentiation process. The commitment of the hASCs was robust and highly specific as attested by the expression of NP-related genes characteristic of young healthy human NP cells PMID: 26661057
  21. The data suggest that Ad-GDF-5 gene therapy is a potential treatment for IDD, which restores the functions of degenerative intervertebral disc through enhancing the ECM production of human NP cells. PMID: 26739524
  22. An association of SNP in GDF5 with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis in female Han Chinese. PMID: 25757091
  23. results demonstrate that SNP rs143383 of GDF5 is a compelling risk factor for both knee and hand osteoarthritis (OA) and provide further support for GDF5 in the etiology of OA [meta-analysis] PMID: 25894512
  24. Two novel homozygous missense mutations in the GDF5 gene cause brachydactyly type C. PMID: 25820810
  25. our results showed that GDF-5 and BMPRII expressed both in normal and degenerated intervertebral disc tissues, and GDF-5 might have an inhibition effect on degenerated lumbar intervertebral discs PMID: 25755766
  26. This meta-analysis finds that the C allele and CC genotype of the GDF5 gene are protective for knee osteoarthritis susceptibility. PMID: 25467786
  27. Our results revealed that the GDF5 SNP was associated with susceptibility to the meniscus injury and postoperative function recovery in Chinese male soldiers. PMID: 24227118
  28. missense mutations p.T201P and p.L263P interfere with the protein structure and thereby reduce the amount of fully processed, biologically active GDF5, finally causing the clinical loss of function phenotype. PMID: 25092592
  29. The proregion is stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bond. The isolated proregion folds independently of the mature domain. PMID: 25174448
  30. Growth differentiation factor 5 and canonical Wnt signaling may contribute to molecular mechanisms of osteoarthritis. PMID: 24561281
  31. These results suggest that obesity leads to upregulation of GDF5 expression responsible for the promotion of brown adipogenesis through a mechanism relevant to activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. PMID: 25223801
  32. results suggested that GDF5 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to symptomatic lumbar disc herniation in Chinese Han population and type II collagen in the nucleus pulposus may be a factor in susceptibility to symptomatic lumbar disc herniation PMID: 24105021
  33. Osteoarthritis chondrocytes do not respond in a predictable manner to culture with exogenous GDF5. PMID: 24466161
  34. High GDF5 expression is associated with osteoarthritis. PMID: 24861163
  35. The expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and aggrecan in 15 cases of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas, was investigated. PMID: 24398992
  36. established an association between two SNPs (rs224332 and rs224333) of GDF5 and DDH development in a female Chinese population. PMID: 24114442
  37. In vitro findings suggest that the degenerating disc milieu, with high proinflammatory cytokine levels, may limit expression of GDF-5, resulting in limited regenerative capacity of the intact disc. PMID: 24582800
  38. These novel insights into the biology of GDF5 might also provide further clues on the pathophysiology of OA. PMID: 24098149
  39. The novel missense mutation p.Leu176Pro causes impaired secretion of GDF5 in Brachydactyly type C and mild Grebe type chondrodyslplasia. PMID: 23812741
  40. GDF5 is the only osteoarthritis susceptibility gene so far identified with definite evidence.[Review] PMID: 24003854
  41. Overall, a statistically significant association was found between the +104T/C polymorphism of GDF5 and risk of knee osteoarthritis PMID: 23151597
  42. GDF5 harbors a C/A transversion located -41 bp relative to the transcription start site that leads to increased gene expression. PMID: 22929025
  43. GDF5 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to low back pain during military training in Chinese soldiers. PMID: 23725396
  44. In conclusion, the rs143383 variant was not found to associate with the risk of ACL rupture. PMID: 23090674
  45. we have identified four trans-acting factors that are binding to GDF5, three of which are modulating GDF5 expression via the OA susceptibility locus rs143383. PMID: 23825960
  46. Although the effect size of the association between OA and GDF5 is small, there is suggestive evidence for an association. PMID: 23423687
  47. GDF5 regulates TGF-beta-dependent angiogenesis in breast carcinoma cells. PMID: 23226264
  48. Growth differentiation factor 5 modulation of chondrogenesis of self-assembled constructs involves gap junction-mediated intercellular communication. PMID: 23121099
  49. analysis of positive selection on the osteoarthritis-risk and decreased-height associated variants at the GDF5 gene in East Asians PMID: 22905146
  50. Our findings in 5 population cohorts from Northern Europe indicate that a variant in the GDF5 gene is a risk factor for lumbar disc degeneration in women. PMID: 21360499

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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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