Recombinant Human ApoA1 Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BL-1909NP
BL-1909NP: Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)
BL-1909NP: Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)

Recombinant Human ApoA1 Protein

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BL-1909NP
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Product Overview

Description Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A-I is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Arg19-Gln267 is expressed.
Accession P02647
Synonym Apolipoprotein A-I; Apo-AI; ApoA-I; APOA1
Gene Background Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) is a secreted protein which belongs to the Apolipoprotein A1/A4/E family. APOA1 is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. APOA1 plays a critical role in various biological processes, such as Cholesterol metabolism, Lipid metabolism and transport, Steroid metabolism. APOA1 promotes cholesterol efflux from tissues to the liver and thus helps to clear cholesterol from arteries. Defects in this gene resulted in HDL deficiencies, including Tangier disease (TGD), systemic non-neuropathic amyloidosis, premature coronary artery disease, hepatosplenomegaly and progressive muscle wasting and weakness. In addition, ApoA-I is implicated in the anti-endotoxin function of HDL via interaction with lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin.
Molecular Mass 28.96 KDa
Apmol Mass 27-31 KDa, reducing conditions
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution of 20mM PB, 150mM NaCl, pH 7.2.
Endotoxin Less than 0.1 ng/µg (1 EU/µg) as determined by LAL test.
Purity Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)
Biological Activity Not tested
Reconstitution Always centrifuge tubes before opening. Do not mix by vortex or pipetting. It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100μg/ml. Dissolve the lyophilized protein in distilled water. Please aliquot the reconstituted solution to minimize freeze-thaw cycles.
Storage Lyophilized protein should be stored at ≤ -20°C, stable for one year after receipt. Reconstituted protein solution can be stored at 2-8°C for 2-7 days. Aliquots of reconstituted samples are stable at ≤ -20°C for 3 months.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature listed below.
Usage For Research Use Only

Target Details

Target Function Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). As part of the SPAP complex, activates spermatozoa motility.
Subcellular Location Secreted.
Protein Families Apolipoprotein A1/A4/E family
Database References
Associated Diseases High density lipoprotein deficiency 2 (HDLD2); High density lipoprotein deficiency 1 (HDLD1); Amyloidosis 8 (AMYL8)
Tissue Specificity Major protein of plasma HDL, also found in chylomicrons. Synthesized in the liver and small intestine. The oxidized form at Met-110 and Met-136 is increased in individuals with increased risk for coronary artery disease, such as in carrier of the eNOSa/b

Gene Functions References

  1. Plasma apoA-I proteolysis is augmented in aortic valve stenosis and cathepsin S exerts the most deleterious effects on apoA-I integrity in humans. PMID: 29915952
  2. This study explores how the high-density lipoproteins lipid composition influences amyloid deposition by apoA-I and related proteins. PMID: 27768903
  3. Site-specific, covalent modifications of apoA-I (lysines or arginines) led to altered protein structure, reduced lipid binding capability and a reduced ability to catalyze cholesterol efflux from macrophages, partly in a modification-specific manner. PMID: 29802959
  4. assessing the quality of ApoA1 and, in turn, that of HDL in circulating blood can serve as an early diagnostic tool for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to modified ApoA1 with its tyrosine residue at the 166th position nitrated to 3-nitrotyrosine PMID: 30132720
  5. Vitreous levels of APOA1 and RBP4 in human rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment reflects the severity of disease. PMID: 29618920
  6. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID: 30119683
  7. Case Report: recurrence of non-familial hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis in Japanese transplant recipient with two novel APOA1 mutations. PMID: 29968409
  8. TNFalpha differently regulated the levels of PPARalpha, LXRalpha, and LXRbeta binding to the apoA-I gene promoter in THP-1 cells. Obtained results suggest a novel tissue-specific mechanism of the TNFalpha-mediated regulation of apoA-I gene in monocytes and macrophages and show that endogenous ApoA-I might be positively regulated in macrophage during inflammation. PMID: 29442267
  9. An increased apo B/apo A1 ratio was independently associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID: 29776362
  10. he present study reveals that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or gender-specific association between the APOA1 rs964184 SNP and serum lipid parameters in our study populations PMID: 29747660
  11. In this study the APOA1 (rs670) gene showed important effects on body weight, adiposity, LDL-cholesterol levels and insulin resistance after 12weeks of the dietary intervention PMID: 29859275
  12. Residues 26-43 of one APOA1 in the smaller particle form a hinge on the disc edge, which displaces the C-terminal domain of the other APOA1 to the phospholipid surface PMID: 29712830
  13. H1 receptor signaling is a novel pathway of apo A1 gene expression PMID: 29378195
  14. genetic polymorphisms of ApoA1 rs5070 A/G may play a role in the susceptibility to large artery atherosclerosis among male diabetic patients. PMID: 28238629
  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in APOA1 gene is associated with dyslipidemia. PMID: 29758034
  16. rs670, rs2854116, and rs662799 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the APOA1-C3-A5 cluster are associated with ischemic stroke in the northern Chinese Han population. PMID: 28635360
  17. Higher levels of TG, LPO (P<0.0001), nonHDL/HDL and ApoB/ApoA1 (P<0.001, 0.05, respectively), and lower levels of HDL-c, ApoA1, and PON1 (P<0.0001) were observed in T2DM subjects than in controls. PMID: 29626583
  18. Data suggest that N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) modification of ApoA1 is up-regulated in serum from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); CEL-ApoA1 is a kind of advanced glycation end product; this leads to up-regulation of anti-CEL-ApoA1 IgM in early disease. Both CEL and anti-CEL IgM may serve as AD biomarkers. PMID: 29680706
  19. The osteonecrosis of the femoral head patients had higher A/A genotype proportions on the apolipoprotein A1 gene 75bp, compared to the control group, while the G/A genotype frequency was lower in the affected patients. This suggests that the G/A mutation on Apo A1 promoter might be one of the predisposing factors for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID: 28770971
  20. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II PMID: 27526664
  21. ApoA1 combined with 9alpha,11ss-PGF2 represents a useful composite biomarker of anaphylaxis, achieving superior diagnostic power over either factor alone. PMID: 28378321
  22. Low-dose lipid-free apoA-I treatment in atherosclerotic mice preserves and restores collecting lymphatic vessels function by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID: 28939717
  23. APOA1 gene may be associated with low HDL-cholesterol disease in the pastoral area of northwest China. PMID: 28969676
  24. Our results strongly suggest that plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA influence aspirin effects on lipid mediators of CVD event risk where their concentrations are most beneficial when moderate, not high or low. These effects on HDL-C cholesterol and apoA-I exchange are novel. PMID: 29031392
  25. A multidisciplinary approach, including circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, spectrofluorometric and atomic force microscopy analyses, monitored the effect of target cells on the conformation and fibrillogenic pathway of the two AApoAI amyloidogenic variants AApoAI(L75P) and AApoAI(L174S). Specific cell milieus selectively affect conformation, aggregation propensity and fibrillogenesis of these variants. PMID: 29174954
  26. we demonstrated a 21.6% decrease in serum ApoA-I in FA patients compared with non-affected controls PMID: 29447225
  27. Smaller apolipoprotein(a) isoform size and increased lipoprotein(a) concentration are independent and causal risk factors for coronary heart disease. PMID: 28408323
  28. In conclusion, decreasing levels of apolipoproteins B and A1 were associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis. PMID: 28540474
  29. Serum ApoA-I level was negatively correlated with the formation of vocal fold polyps, suggesting ApoA-I may reduce the risk of vocal fold polyps. PMID: 27816355
  30. data indicate that low apoA1 levels are an independent predictor of the poor clinical outcomes in invasive ductal carcinoma patients. PMID: 28595037
  31. Data suggest that Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1) might be a promising therapeutic target to reduce recurrence and metastasis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after resection. PMID: 27683106
  32. The generated structures provide evidence for the discoidal, antiparallel arrangement of apoA-I in nascent HDL, and propose two preferred conformations of the flexible N-termini PMID: 28754383
  33. identified that apolipoprotein-A1 and haptoglobin had significant predictive values for the prediction of recovery at 12 weeks in DILI, enabling the construction of a new prognostic panel, the DILI-ActiTest, which needs to be independently validated PMID: 29287080
  34. ApoA1 is associated with neurite outgrowth after mechanical injury by mediating polymerisation of actin and restricting inflammatory responses after injury which are deleterious to healing. PMID: 27100352
  35. A retractable lid in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase provides a structural mechanism for activation by apolipoprotein A-I PMID: 29030428
  36. Lower ApoA1 improves the risk prediction of new type 2 diabetes PMID: 28502492
  37. Following ETC-216 administration to normal human volunteers, an initial dose-dependent HDL-C elevation was observed. Thereafter, subjects transiently acquired a lipoprotein profile similar to that of AIM carriers, including reduced HDL-C and mild hypertriglyceridemia. PMID: 27155060
  38. The different anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the ApoA-I cysteine mutants might be associated with the regulation of ATF3 level. PMID: 28093456
  39. Anti-apoA-1 IgG are independent predictors of nonfatal incident coronary artery disease in the general population. The strength of this association is dependent on a functional polymorphism of the CD14 receptor gene, a finding suggesting a gene-autoantibody interaction for the development of CAD. PMID: 29074586
  40. In vitro proteolysis of the apoA-I-Cy5.5 probe by a variety of proteases including serine, cysteine, and metalloproteases resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in fluorescence, allowing for quantification of apolipoprotein A-I proteolytic degradation. PMID: 28167355
  41. Using atomic force microscopy, detail the ring-shaped coarse structure, and the three detailed structures of apoA-I directly derived from spherical HDL through NP-40-induced lipid depletion. PMID: 28279834
  42. These data suggest that high doses of insulin downregulate apoA-I gene expression in HepG2 cells through redistribution of FOXO1/LXRbeta complex, FOXA2, and LXRalpha on hepatic enhancer of apoA-I gene. PMID: 27404023
  43. Our findings suggest that serum ApoA-I level should be evaluated as a predictor of survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma PMID: 27444612
  44. Inflammatory markers modify the risk of recurrent coronary events associated with apolipoprotein A-I in postinfarction patients PMID: 28391888
  45. Serum Apo-A1 was significantly lower in term SGA newborns compared to control term newborns. PMID: 28304324
  46. This study showed that the predictive value of apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio for coronary artery calcification may differ according to kidney function. PMID: 28957410
  47. Findings suggest that the ABCG1-mediated efflux of cholesterol, but not of 7-ketocholesterol, shows specificity for structural domains of apoA-I bound to reconstituted HDL. Although the mid region alone of apoA-I associated to rHDL can promote ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux, deletion of carboxyl-terminal region 185-243 from full-length apoA-I diminishes ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux. PMID: 23826352
  48. Low APOA1 expression is associated with coronary artery disease severity. PMID: 28038449
  49. Data suggest that activation of SR-BI by APOAI down-regulates sphingosine 1-phosphate/S1PR2-mediated inflammation in vascular endothelial cells by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; oxidized-LDL does the opposite. (APOA1 = apolipoprotein A-I; SR-BI/SCARB1 = scavenger receptor class B type I; S1PR2 = sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2; PI3K = phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; Akt = proto-oncogene c-akt) PMID: 28181168
  50. The minor alleles of rs662799 (APOA5) and rs5072 (APOA1) modulate TG levels in Mexican children PMID: 27171122


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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