Transforming Growth Factors (TGFs) are an important class of cytokines that have a wide range of regulatory effects on various cell types and biological processes. TGFs family includes TGF-β family and BMP family, which play an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and synthesis of extracellular matrix.
The TGF-β family is one of the most well-known and extensively studied families of TGFs. TGF-β family members include TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3 and other subtypes. By binding to receptors on the cell surface, they trigger the activation of downstream signaling pathways that regulate cellular functions and biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in embryonic development, tissue repair and regeneration, immune regulation, inflammatory response, tumorigenesis and metastasis. They can promote or inhibit cell proliferation, regulate gene expression, affect cell migration and invasion, and participate in the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix. Abnormal regulation of TGF-β is closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases, including tumors, fibrotic diseases, and immune diseases.
The BMP family is another important family of TGFs involved in processes such as bone formation, tissue repair and regeneration. BMPs include various subtypes, such as BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7 and so on. They play an important role in skeletal cell differentiation, bone growth and bone repair. BMPs can stimulate stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and promote the formation and repair of bone tissue. Therefore, BMPs have broad clinical application prospects in the repair of bone defects and the treatment of bone-related diseases.
In summary, the TGFs family, especially the TGF-β and BMP family, is of great significance in cell biology, developmental biology and clinical medicine. Their research not only helps to reveal the mechanisms of cell signaling and biological processes, but also provides potential targets and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of related diseases. Through further research and development, the TGFs family is expected to bring more opportunities and progress to human health and disease treatment.
Growth Factor Families
TGFs and Receptors are a diverse group of growth factors and their associated receptors involved in regulating various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and immune modulation.TGF-β Superfamily