Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Family

Introduction to the IL-10 Family

The IL-10 family (IL-10 family) comprises a crucial group of cytokine families, including IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and other members. These IL-10 family members play a vital role in physiological processes such as immune regulation, inflammatory response, and tissue repair. Within the IL-10 family, there is a close clustering relationship in the coding genes, similar genome structure, primary protein structure, and receptor binding structure. However, these members exhibit distinct biological functions, with some having anti-inflammatory effects and others having pro-inflammatory effects. Research has demonstrated that the targets and immune responses of cytokines from different sources can vary, potentially due to the diversity of expressing cells, contributing to the high polymorphism observed within the IL-10 family. Furthermore, the IL-10 family mediates various biological responses, including immunosuppression, enhanced antibacterial and antiviral capabilities, augmented antitumor activity, and promotion of self-tolerance in autoimmune diseases, among others.

IL-10, the Pivotal Member of the IL-10 Family

IL-10 is the most representative and important member of the IL-10 family. It is mainly produced by a variety of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that can inhibit the inflammatory response and the activation of immune cells. It plays an anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory role by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, inhibiting the pro-inflammatory ability of immune cells and regulating the balance of immune responses. In addition, IL-10 can also promote tissue repair and anti-tumor immune response.

Fig.1 Schematic representation of IL-10 interaction mechanism with the specific Receptor.
Fig.1 Schematic representation of IL-10 interaction mechanism with the specific
Receptor. [3]

Diverse Functions: IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26

Members such as IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26 also assume crucial roles in immune regulation, inflammatory response, and tissue repair. IL-19 and IL-20 are implicated in skin inflammation and immune cell activation. IL-22 plays a pivotal role in mucosal immune regulation, tissue repair, and antimicrobial defense. Furthermore, IL-24 and IL-26 exhibit significant functions in tumor immune regulation, antiviral defense, and immune cell activation.

Receptor Interaction and Signaling Pathways: Regulating Cell Functions

IL-10 family members engage in specific receptor binding, activate downstream signaling pathways, and regulate cellular functions and immune responses. They assume vital roles in diverse inflammatory diseases, autoimmune conditions, and tumors, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions. IL-10-based therapeutics have shown promise in certain autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Continued research and development hold the potential for uncovering new opportunities and expanding the therapeutic utility of IL-10 family members.

In summary, IL-10 family members occupy significant roles in physiological processes, including immune regulation, inflammatory response, and tissue repair. Their relevance extends to the treatment of inflammatory diseases and tumors, underscoring their profound importance.

Fig.2 Stereo diagram of IL-10/sIL-10R1 complex.
Fig.2 Stereo diagram of IL-10/sIL-10R1 complex. [1]

Research Areas

The research fields pertaining to the IL-10 family encompass various important aspects. The following are key areas of research:

  1. Immune Regulation: IL-10 family molecules assume a vital role in immune regulation. They possess anti-inflammatory properties, regulate immune cell activation and function, and promote immune tolerance. Researchers strive to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the immune regulatory functions of the IL-10 family and explore their potential application in treating immune-related diseases.
  2. Inflammation and Immune Diseases: IL-10 family molecules hold significance in inflammation and immune-related diseases. For instance, IL-10 exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and allergic diseases. Researchers aim to investigate the specific mechanisms by which the IL-10 family operates in these diseases and develop therapeutics targeting IL-10 family molecules.
  3. Cell Proliferation and Differentiation: IL-10 family molecules exert a notable impact on cell proliferation and differentiation. They can promote or inhibit these processes, thereby influencing tissue development, regeneration, and tumor growth. Researchers are dedicated to studying the mechanisms by which IL-10 family molecules influence cell proliferation and differentiation, with the aim of understanding their potential application in treating related diseases.
  4. Cancer Immunotherapy: IL-10 family molecules also play a pivotal role in cancer immunotherapy. They can modulate the tumor microenvironment, affecting tumor immune escape and immune surveillance. Researchers are committed to studying the specific mechanisms by which IL-10 family molecules operate in cancer immunotherapy and developing related immunotherapy strategies.

[1] Zdanov, A. . (2010). Structural analysis of cytokines comprising the il-10 family. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, 21(5), 325-330.
[2]Wenjun, Ouyang, Anne, & O'Garra. (2019). Il-10 family cytokines il-10 and il-22: from basic science to clinical translation. Immunity.
[3] Fioranelli, M. . (2015). Twenty-five years of studies and trials for the therapeutic application of il-10 immunomodulating properties. from high doses administration to low dose medicine new paradigm.

Interleukin Families

IL-1 Family

The IL-1 family, comprising IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, and related molecules, plays a crucial role in immune regulation and inflammation by activating immune cells, inducing intracellular signaling, and modulating biological effects through receptor binding.

IL-1 Family Details
IL-6 Family

The IL-6 family, comprising cytokines like IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, IL-31, LIF, and CNTF, plays vital roles in immune regulation, inflammatory response, as well as cell proliferation and differentiation within physiological processes.

IL-6 Family Details
IL-10 Family

The IL-10 family, consisting of IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and other members, plays a critical role in immune regulation, inflammatory response, and tissue repair.

IL-10 Family Details
IL-12 Family

The IL-12 family, comprising IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35, possesses distinct structural, functional, and immunological attributes, playing a vital role in immunological research.

IL-12 Family Details
IL-17 Family

The IL-17 family contribute significantly to immune regulation and inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, inducing inflammatory mediator production, and participating in immune cell proliferation and tissue repair processes.

IL-17 Family Details
Other Interleukins

IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-14, IL-32, and IL-34 exhibit diverse functions and contribute to various aspects of immune regulation, inflammation, cell differentiation, and disease pathogenesis. Understanding their roles enhances our knowledge of immune responses and aids in the development of potential therapeutic strategies.

Other Interleukins Details