Recombinant Human PVR Protein (C-Fc)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BL-2243NP
BL-2243NP: Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)
BL-2243NP: Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)

Recombinant Human PVR Protein (C-Fc)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BL-2243NP
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Product Overview

Description Recombinant Human Poliovirus Receptor is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding Trp21-Asn343 is expressed with a human IgG1 Fc tag at the C-terminus.
Accession P15151
Synonym Poliovirus Receptor; Nectin-Like Protein 5; NECL-5; CD155; PVR; PVS
Gene Background Poliovirus Receptor (PVR) is a 70 kDa type I transmembrane single-span glycoprotein that belongs to the nectin-like (Necl) family and was originally identified based on its ability to mediate the cell attachment and entry of poliovirus (PV), an etiologic agent of the central nervous system disease poliomyelitis. PVR contains three Ig-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail. The normal cellular function of PVR maybe the involvement of intercellular adhension between epithelial cells. Alternate splicing of the PVR mRNA yields four different isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) with identical extracellular domains.
Molecular Mass 62.2 KDa
Apmol Mass 80-120 KDa, reducing conditions
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution of PBS, pH 7.4.
Endotoxin Less than 0.1 ng/µg (1 EU/µg) as determined by LAL test.
Purity Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE. (QC verified)
Biological Activity Biologically active. Please contact us to obtain bioactivity data.
Reconstitution Always centrifuge tubes before opening. Do not mix by vortex or pipetting. It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100μg/ml. Dissolve the lyophilized protein in distilled water. Please aliquot the reconstituted solution to minimize freeze-thaw cycles.
Storage Lyophilized protein should be stored at ≤ -20°C, stable for one year after receipt. Reconstituted protein solution can be stored at 2-8°C for 2-7 days. Aliquots of reconstituted samples are stable at ≤ -20°C for 3 months.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature listed below.
Usage For Research Use Only

Target Details

Target Function Mediates NK cell adhesion and triggers NK cell effector functions. Binds two different NK cell receptors: CD96 and CD226. These interactions accumulates at the cell-cell contact site, leading to the formation of a mature immunological synapse between NK cell and target cell. This may trigger adhesion and secretion of lytic granules and IFN-gamma and activate cytotoxicity of activated NK cells. May also promote NK cell-target cell modular exchange, and PVR transfer to the NK cell. This transfer is more important in some tumor cells expressing a lot of PVR, and may trigger fratricide NK cell activation, providing tumors with a mechanism of immunoevasion. Plays a role in mediating tumor cell invasion and migration.; (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for poliovirus. May play a role in axonal transport of poliovirus, by targeting virion-PVR-containing endocytic vesicles to the microtubular network through interaction with DYNLT1. This interaction would drive the virus-containing vesicle to the axonal retrograde transport.; (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for Pseudorabies virus.; (Microbial infection) Is prevented to reach cell surface upon infection by Human cytomegalovirus /HHV-5, presumably to escape immune recognition of infected cell by NK cells.
Subcellular Location [Isoform Alpha]: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.; [Isoform Delta]: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.; [Isoform Beta]: Secreted.; [Isoform Gamma]: Secreted.
Protein Families Nectin family
Database References

Gene Functions References

  1. These findings highlight the importance of the TIGIT/CD226/PVR axis as an immune checkpoint barrier that could hinder future "cure" strategies requiring potent HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells PMID: 28084312
  2. Study investigated the more detailed mechanism for this cis-interaction of Necl-5 with the PDGF receptor beta. Necl-5 contains three Ig-like domains and the PDGF receptor beta contains five Ig-like domains at their extracellular regions; showed that the third Ig-like domain of Necl-5 cis-interacted with the fifth Ig-like domain of the PDGF receptor beta. PMID: 29431243
  3. Studied association of poliovirus receptor (PVR/CD155) mutation and cleft lip and cleft palate. Validated previous findings that PVR/CD155 markers are associated with cleft lip and palate. PMID: 29381645
  4. The authors demonstrate that HIV and specifically Nef and/or Vpu do not modulate CD155 on infected primary T cells and both CD155 and NKG2D ligands synergize as a natural killer cell receptor to trigger natural killer cell lysis of the infected cell. PMID: 27296670
  5. Data show that gastric cancer cells inhibit T-cell metabolism through CD155/TIGIT signaling. PMID: 28883004
  6. Studies showed that CD155 was frequently overexpressed in human malignant tumors. Its overexpression promotes tumor cell invasion and migration, and is associated with tumor progression. [review] PMID: 28730595
  7. soluble CD226 elevated in sera of CTCL patients would be important for tumor immunity by interacting with CD155 on tumor cells. PMID: 28395975
  8. data reveal that MICA and PVR are directly regulated by human cytomegalovirus immediate early proteins, and this may be crucial for the onset of an early host antiviral response PMID: 27733551
  9. The SNP detection assay was successfully developed for identification of Ala67Thr polymorphism in human PVR/CD155 gene. The SNP assay will be useful for large scale screening of DNA samples. PMID: 27834324
  10. sCD155 levels were significantly decreased after surgical resection of cancers. Thus, sCD155 level in serum may be potentially useful as a biomarker for cancer development and progression PMID: 27049654
  11. implying that TIGIT exerts immunosuppressive effects by competing with DNAM-1 for the same ligand, CD155 PMID: 26842126
  12. The present study provides evidence that regulation of the PVR/CD155 DNAM-1 ligand expression by nitric oxide may represent an additional immune-mediated mechanism and supports the anti-myeloma activity of nitric oxide donors. PMID: 25609078
  13. Our findings suggest that loss of CD155 expression may play an important role in the immune escape of HCC cells and thus CD155 may serve as a prognostic marker as well as a potential therapeutic target for HCC. PMID: 25320021
  14. CD155 may play a critical role through both immunological and non-immuno logical mechanisms in pancreatic cancer and may be a therapeutic target for this intractable malignancy. PMID: 25862891
  15. CD155 (PVR/Necl5) mediates a costimulatory signal in CD4+ T cells and regulates allergic inflammation. PMID: 25972481
  16. The cell-surface receptor (Pvr) catalyzes a large structural change in the poliovirus that exposes membrane-binding protein chains. PMID: 25631086
  17. In granulosa cells, there are significant changes in expression during follicular maturation. PMID: 24828608
  18. UPR decreases CD226 ligand CD155 expression and sensitivity to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells. PMID: 25209846
  19. Ala residues 10, 14 and 18 in the TM domain of Vpu are required for CD155 downregulation. PMID: 25113908
  20. TIGIT/PVR ligation signaling mediates suppression of IFN-gamma production via the NF-kappaB pathway. PMID: 24817116
  21. UL141 can inhibit cell-surface expression of both natural killer (NK) cell-activating ligand CD155 as well as TRAIL death receptors (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2). PMID: 24598754
  22. Vpr upregulates PVR during Hiv-1 infection by activating ATR kinase that triggers the DNA damage rsponse pathway and G2 arrest. PMID: 24045107
  23. The CD226/CD155 interaction regulates the proinflammatory (Th1/Th17)/anti-inflammatory (Th2) balance in humans. PMID: 23980210
  24. PVR resides in the recently identified lateral border recycling compartment, similar to PECAM and CD99. PMID: 23333754
  25. findings suggest Necl-5 expression in lung cancer cells is crucial for their invasiveness in the cancer-stromal interaction PMID: 23276719
  26. The concordant computational and experimental data of the present study indicate that the extent of NECL-5 expression correlates with melanoma progression. PMID: 22929570
  27. we demonstrated the expression of both CD155 mRNA and protein in bone and soft tissue sarcoma cell lines PMID: 22692919
  28. Expression of PVR in B-ALL cells is modulated by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID: 22169283
  29. This investigation has enhanced understanding of cell invasion and confirmed CD44 to play a more significant role in this biological process than CD155. PMID: 22363471
  30. the PVR downmodulation by Nef and Vpu is a strategy evolved by HIV-1 to prevent NK cell-mediated lysis of infected cells. PMID: 22301152
  31. Data show that a high expression of CD112 and CD155 (DNAM-1 ligands) on leukemic blasts. PMID: 21383766
  32. The host TICAM-1 pathway, particularly in macrophages, serves as a source of type I interferon induction that protects poliovirus (PV) receptor-bearing transgenic mice from PV infection and paralytic death. PMID: 21998457
  33. CD155 is an IFNgamma-inducible immune regulatory protein on the surface of human endothelial cells that attenuates the acquisition of effector functions in CD8 T cells. PMID: 21330602
  34. Necl-5 plays a role in mediating tumor cell invasion and that the overexpression of Necl-5 in cancer cells has clinical significance for prognostic evaluation of patients with primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID: 20331633
  35. We propose that the cytoplasmic domain may target CD155-containing endocytic vesicles to the microtubular network PMID: 11751937
  36. activation of expression of sonic hedgehog protein PMID: 11983699
  37. Data show that both PVR and Nectin-2 represent specific ligands for the DNAM-1 triggering receptor. PMID: 12913096
  38. CD155 may have an important role in cellular function PMID: 12943679
  39. These data indicate that Tage4 represents the functional orthologue of CD155 in mouse. PMID: 14652024
  40. that DNAM-1 regulates monocyte extravasation via its interaction with CD226 expressed at endothelial junctions on normal cells. PMID: 15136589
  41. These results suggest that CD155alpha plays a role in the regulation of cell adhesion and cell motility. PMID: 15194502
  42. cytoplasmic domain of PVR directly interacts with Tctex-1 and plays an important role in retrograde transport of poliovirus-containing vesicles along microtubules in vivo PMID: 15194795
  43. Upregulation of the molecular target CD155 renders explant cultures of high-grade malignant gliomas highly susceptible to a prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant. PMID: 15279713
  44. Analysis of the ligands for triggering NK receptors revealed the consistent expression of cd155 and cd112 in myeloid leukemias, and less frequent expression in lymphoblastic leukemias PMID: 15536144
  45. Evasion of NK cell killing was mediated by human cytomegalovirus UL141 blocking surface expression of CD155 PMID: 15640804
  46. Necl-5 has a critical role in integrin alphavbeta3 clustering and focal complex formation PMID: 17446174
  47. Results describe the establishment of a poliovirus oral infection system in human poliovirus receptor-expressing transgenic mice that are deficient in alpha/beta interferon receptor. PMID: 17507470
  48. no statistically significant association between this marker allele and non-syndromic clefting PMID: 17534374
  49. CD155, at least in part, enhances the proliferation of ras-mutated cells PMID: 17893876
  50. crystal structure of C155 D1D2 has been determined to 3.5-A resolution and fitted into approximately 8.5-A resolution cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions of the virus-receptor complexes for the 3 PV serotypes PMID: 19011098


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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