Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-4550

Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein (His Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-4550
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Product Overview

Tag His
Host Species Human
Accession O00206
Synonym ARMD10, CD284, TLR-4, TLR4, TOLL
Background TLR4, also known as TLR-4, is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. TLR4 is most abundantly expressed in placenta, and in myelomonocytic subpopulation of the leukocytes. TLR 4 has also been designated as CD284 (cluster of differentiation 284). It has been implicated in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in most gram-negative bacteria. TLR4 Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. It is also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by Ni(2+).
Description A DNA sequence encoding the human TLR4 (Met 1-Lys631) (O00206-1) was expressed, with a C-terminal His tag.
Source Baculovirus-Insect Cells
Predicted N Terminal Glu 24
AA Sequence Met 1-Lys631
Molecular Weight The secreted recombinant human TLR4 consists of 619 a.a. and predicts a molecular mass of 70.5 KDa. The apparent molecular mass of the protein is approximately 68 Kda in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions due to glycosylation.
Purity >87% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin < 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile 20mM Tris, 500mM NaCl, pH 7.4, 10% gly.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific. Both M.tuberculosis HSP70 (dnaK) and HSP65 (groEL-2) act via this protein to stimulate NF-kappa-B expression. In complex with TLR6, promotes sterile inflammation in monocytes/macrophages in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or amyloid-beta 42. In this context, the initial signal is provided by oxLDL- or amyloid-beta 42-binding to CD36. This event induces the formation of a heterodimer of TLR4 and TLR6, which is rapidly internalized and triggers inflammatory response, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine, via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion. Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-). Stimulation of monocytes in vitro with M.tuberculosis PstS1 induces p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation primarily via TLR2, but also partially via this receptor. Activated by the signaling pathway regulator NMI which acts as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in response to cell injury or pathogen invasion, therefore promoting nuclear factor NF-kappa-B activation.
Subcellular Location Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Early endosome. Cell projection, ruffle.
Protein Families Toll-like receptor family
Database References
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells.

Gene Functions References

  1. the presence of polymorphism Asp299Gly gene TLR4 in patients co-infected with HIV/HCV indicates a high risk of metabolic disturbances PMID: 30204113
  2. high expression of (TLR4) is associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 30403590
  3. Data suggest that the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mutant-specific conformational alterations may help in deciphering the mechanism of loss-of-function mutations. PMID: 28272553
  4. TLR4 and TLR9 mRNA were elevated in blood samples from celiac disease patients compared to the healthy controls PMID: 30057921
  5. high TLR4 expression level during acute rejection was associated with adverse kidney allograft outcome PMID: 29475090
  6. the results of the present study showed significantly higher mRNA expression levels for TLR4 180days post-transplantation in the graft dysfunction group compared to well functioning graft group PMID: 29452169
  7. the expression levels of TLR4/MyD88 were positively correlated with the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells and tumors. The expression levels of TLR4/MyD88 may be used as a biomarker to evaluate the prognosis and guide the treatment of patients with breast cancer. PMID: 30066873
  8. These results suggest that celastrol exerts its protective effect partly via inhibiting the TLR4mediated immune and inflammatory response in steatotic HepG2 cells. PMID: 30015859
  9. No association between the SNPs rs10983755 A/G, rs4986791 C/T, rs4986790 A/G, rs10759932 C/T, rs1927911 C/T, rs11536889 C/G, and rs12377632 C/T and heart transplant rejection was found PMID: 30177119
  10. The results revealed that TLR4 and COX-2 were upregulated in PCa tissues; silencing of TLR4 or COX-2 inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. PMID: 30098292
  11. The role of IDO1-IDO2-AHR pathway in the TLR4-induced tolerogenic phenotype in human dendritic cells has been reported. PMID: 28256612
  12. TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism potentially leading to the development of recurrent hydatidosis, by skewing the immune system towards a Th2 response PMID: 29602972
  13. Study demonstrated that HMGB1 and TLR4 could contribute to the inflammatory lichen planus process in skin. PMID: 29728859
  14. Physical interaction between p38 and eNOS was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, suggesting a novel, NO-independent mechanism for eNOS regulation of TLR4. In correlation, biopsy samples in patients with systemic lupus erythematous showed reduced eNOS expression with associated elevations in TLR4 and p38, suggesting an in vivo link. PMID: 29061842
  15. The overexpression of miR-140 inhibited the upregulation of the expression of TLR4. PMID: 29901170
  16. TLR4 small interfering RNA blocked hUGT1A1/hNRs downregulation. PMID: 29311138
  17. The expression of TLR4 in perihematoma tissue began to increase within 6 hours after intracerebral hemorrhage and decreased after 72 hours. PMID: 29990607
  18. miR-20a could negatively regulate TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling to protect human aortic endothelial cells from inflammatory injuries. PMID: 29653364
  19. Study provides clear evidence that resistin is a clinically relevant endogenous ligand for TLR4, which promotes tumor progression via TLR4/NF-kappaB/STAT3 signaling. PMID: 28991224
  20. The antitumor effect of curcumin was related to the inhibition HSP70-TLR4 signaling. PMID: 29901164
  21. Activates the NFkappaB pathway through the Tolllike receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/IkappaBalpha axis. PMID: 29916535
  22. An MRP-TLR4 dependent signaling may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID: 29656212
  23. The pathways involved in the effect of ROCK1 in human corneal epithelial cells was preliminarily explained by detecting changes of TLR4-mediated NF-kB and ERK signaling. PMID: 29804125
  24. Serum TLR4 was closely related to AA and associated with some AA-related circulating markers PMID: 29649455
  25. Fibrinogen induced podocyte injury via the TLR4-p38 MAPK-NF-kappaB p65 pathway in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. PMID: 28407405
  26. Crosstalk between TLR4 and Notch1 signaling regulates the inflammatory response in the IgAN and maybe plays an important role in the progression of IgAN. PMID: 29230705
  27. Data indicate three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). PMID: 29150600
  28. Low TLR4 expression is associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID: 30246618
  29. An association exists between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia with increased TLR-4 and NF-kappaB expression in the placenta of pre-eclamptic women with periodontitis. PMID: 28349674
  30. TLR4 SNPs were not associated with acute graft rejection in kidney transplant recipients. PMID: 28411360
  31. TLR4 Thr399Ile polymorphism was associated with increased risk of Crohn's disease in Asia and Asians. [meta-analysis] PMID: 29421805
  32. Our results indicated TLR4 SNP rs11536889 may be a marker for intracranial aneurysm risk PMID: 29754966
  33. the expression of TLR4 in gingival tissues and on mast cells increased with the severity of chronic periodontitis, suggesting that TLR4, particularly mast cell TLR4, may be important in the disease process of human chronic periodontitis. PMID: 29488617
  34. Report shows that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients express functional TLR4 on peripheral CD8+ T cells that directly promote T-cell function and differentiation to Tc1. The study also suggests that TLR4 signals directly drive Tc1 development and T cell activation independent of TCR engagement. PMID: 28424490
  35. Resistin promoted lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through the TLR4/Src/EGFR/PI3K/NF-kappaB pathway. PMID: 29927028
  36. imcreased TLR4 expression in gastric cardia lesions may be associated with gastric cardia cancer tumorigenesis PMID: 29670922
  37. The immunoenhancement effect of PSP against lung cancer is mediated by TLR4-MAPK/NF-kappaB signaling pathways PMID: 29343453
  38. LPS stimulation induced TLR4 expression and increased pigmentation. TLR4 expression was not detected after single-dose UVA or UVB treatment, but pigmentation increased. Repeated UV treatment induced TLR4 expression and increased pigmentation. LPS stimulation and repeated UV treatment increased IL-6 secretion, and repeated UVB treatment increased IL-10 secretion. PMID: 29063638
  39. data suggest that high-phosphate conditions directly induce vascular calcification via the activation of TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling in VSMCs PMID: 29227975
  40. LncRNA MEG3 ameliorates respiratory syncytial virus infection by suppressing TLR4 signaling. PMID: 29257348
  41. Study shows that the toll-like receptor 4 gene rs1927914 polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to ischemic stroke in males. Moreover, the rs10759932 polymorphism may affect inflammatory response in ischemic stroke patients. PMID: 29075930
  42. There was no difference found in MMP-2, MMP-9 or TLR-4 levels between non-thrombocytopenic and thrombocytopenic septic donors. PLA formation was increased in thrombocytopenic patients. PMID: 29734352
  43. there was a negative correlation between YKL-40 and TLR4 expression in chronic sinusitis patients with nasal polyps. YKL-40 and TLR4 interacted with each other to activate NF-kappaB and promote disease progression. PMID: 29921378
  44. High expression of MMP-9 and TLR4 in patients with COPD may promote inflammatory cell infiltration, induce proliferation of smooth muscle cells, degrade extracellular matrix, and play an important role in lung revascularization. PMID: 28537664
  45. our findings confirm that in south Tunisian patients with IBD, the TLR4-Thr399Ile variant is strongly associated with susceptibility to CD and that the two polymorphisms of this receptor (TLR4-Thr399Ile and TLR4-Asp299Gly) may play a role in the clinical expression of UC. PMID: 29055077
  46. Logistic analysis showed that both rs11536889 and rs7873784 in TLR4 were associated with risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated by tuberculosis (TB) (T2DMTB) in additive and dominant models. Carriers with homozygous and heterozygous mutants of rs11536889 and rs7873784 were associated with higher T2DMTB risk than those with wild-type homozygotes PMID: 29073942
  47. Involvement of the TLR-4 in the mediation of the biglycan action was confirmed using a specific silent agent (siRNA). Taken together, these data could be used to develop new anti-inflammatory approaches PMID: 29339093
  48. TLR4 was significantly up-regulated in synovial tissue samples from rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID: 28987944
  49. The results revealed a lack of association for TLR4 variant with ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke, although a significant association was observed with the subtypes extracranial large artery. PMID: 28963650
  50. TREM-2 promotes acquired cholesteatoma-induced bone destruction by modulating TLR4 signaling pathway and osteoclasts activation PMID: 27934908


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

To learn more about how to properly dissolve the lyophilized recombinant protein, please visit Lyophilization FAQs.

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