Recombinant Human GADD45A Protein (His & GST Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-2180

Recombinant Human GADD45A Protein (His & GST Tag)

Beta LifeScience SKU/CAT #: BLPSN-2180
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Product Overview

Tag His&GST
Host Species Human
Accession P24522
Synonym DDIT1, GADD45
Background GADD45A is a member of the GADD45 Family, and has been found to associate with several cytoplasmic and nuclear factors and has been implicated in several cellular functions, including MAPK signaling, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and genomic stability, apoptosis, and immune responses. The GADD45 Family of genes is rapidly induced by different stressors, including differentiation-inducing cytokines, and there is a large body of evidence that their cognate proteins are key players in cellular stress responses. GADD45A protein has been reported to interact with multiple important cellular proteins, including Cdc2 protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21Waf1/Cip1 protein, core histone protein and MTK/MEKK4, an up-stream activator of the JNK/SAPK pathway, indicating that GADD45A may play important roles in the control of cell cycle checkpoint, DNA repair process, and signaling transduction. GADD45A expression in response to genotoxic stress illustrates a more complex scenario, wherein transcriptional changes operate in concert with mRNA turnover and translational regulation. GADD45A was the first stress-inducible gene determined to be up-regulated by p53 and is also a target for the p53 homologues, p63 and p73. The decreased GADD45A expression is also considered a survival mechanism, as cancer cells without this control can evade the apoptotic pathway leading to increased tumourigenesis. As GADD45A is an essential component of many metabolic pathways that control proliferating cancer cells, it presents itself as an emerging drug target worthy of further investigation.
Description A DNA sequence encoding the full length of human GADD45A (P24522) (Met 1-Arg 165) was fused with the N-terminal His-tagged GST tag at the N-terminus.
Source Baculovirus-Insect Cells
Predicted N Terminal Met
AA Sequence Met 1-Arg 165
Molecular Weight The recombinant human GADD45A/GST chimera consists of 402 a.a. and has a calculated molecular mass of 46.2 kDa. It migrates as an approximately 46 kDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.
Purity >95% as determined by SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin < 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
Bioactivity Please contact us for detailed information
Formulation Lyophilized from sterile 20mM Tris, 500mM NaCl, pH 7.4, 10% gly.
Stability The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C.
Usage For Research Use Only
Storage Store the protein under sterile conditions at -20°C to -80°C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Target Details

Target Function In T-cells, functions as a regulator of p38 MAPKs by inhibiting p88 phosphorylation and activity. Might affect PCNA interaction with some CDK (cell division protein kinase) complexes; stimulates DNA excision repair in vitro and inhibits entry of cells into S phase.
Subcellular Location Nucleus.
Protein Families GADD45 family
Database References

Gene Functions References

  1. Human miR-374 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human squamous carcinoma cells through P53 signaling pathway by down-regulating Gadd45a. PMID: 28679648
  2. Findings demonstrated that miR-148a promotes glioma cell invasion and tumorigenesis by downregulating GADD45A. Findings provide novel insights into how GADD45A is downregulated by miR-148a in IDH1R132H glioma PMID: 28445981
  3. A mechanism in which GADD45a is required for demethylation of the MMP-9 promoter and the induction of diabetic wound healing. The inhibition of GADD45a might be a therapeutic strategy for diabetic foot ulcers. PMID: 29244109
  4. Our findings indicate that GADD45 essentially suppresses the MKK7-JNK pathway and suggest that differentially expressed GADD45 family members fine-tune stress-inducible JNK activity. PMID: 29037961
  5. Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway. PMID: 27156884
  6. the enhancement of GADD45A-mediated base excision repair modulated by ATF2 might be a potential protective mechanism of visible red light. PMID: 27729279
  7. Data show that growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha protein (Gadd45a) expression is up-regulated in chronic phase myelocytic leukemia, chronic (CML) patient samples but down-regulated in accelerated and blast crisis phase samples. PMID: 28086219
  8. These data revealed that Riboflavin plus ultraviolet (UV) pathogen reduction technology effectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of lymphocytes by promoting GADD45alpha expression, which subsequently activates p38 and JNK signaling pathways. PMID: 27905125
  9. data suggest GADD45 proteins play a role in controlling HIV-1 transcription and in regulating HIV-1 latency PMID: 26994425
  10. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS generation might be a predisposing event in berberine-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in EBV-transformed B cells through the upregulation of XAF1 and GADD45alpha expression by MAPK and functional p53. PMID: 27121748
  11. Collective results lead us to conclude that GADD45alpha modulates curcumin sensitivity through activation of c-Abl > JNK signaling in a mismatch repair-dependent manner PMID: 26833194
  12. BRCA1 may act as an important negative regulator in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis through regulating the stability of Smad4; this defines a novel link that connects BRCA1 to TGF-beta1/Smad pathway. PMID: 26022109
  13. MiR-362-5p promotes the malignancy of chronic myelocytic leukaemia via down-regulation of GADD45alpha PMID: 26545365
  14. these data suggest a dual function of GADD45a in oxidative DNA demethylation, to promote directly or indirectly TET1 activity and to enhance subsequent 5-formylcytosine/5-carboxylcytosine removal. PMID: 26546041
  15. These data suggest that GADD45A (1506T>C) is a new tumor susceptibility gene and could be a useful molecular marker for assessing ovarian cancer risk and for predicting ovarian cancer patient prognosis. PMID: 26422378
  16. Data show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0 (hnRNPA0) drives chemo-resistance of p53-mutant tumor cells via p27Kip1/Gadd45alpha mRNAs. PMID: 26602816
  17. GADD45A mRNA expression was significantly greater in patients with SLE compared to controls. PMID: 25899090
  18. Report GADD45alpha luciferase reporter assays in human cells for assessing the genotoxicity of environmental pollutants. PMID: 25560476
  19. Data showed that upregulation of cytoplasmic AFP is associated with down-regulation of GADD45a in hepatocellular neoplastic tissues and that AFP mediated downregulation of GADD45a to accelerate aberrant growth of HBV infected cells. PMID: 25846475
  20. Serum GADD45a methylation in combination with PSA and fcDNA level was useful in distinguishing benign from prostate cancer patients. PMID: 26171936
  21. GADD45a promoter regulation by a functional genetic variant is associated with acute mechanical lung injury. PMID: 24940746
  22. Induction of GADD45alpha protects M17 neuroblastoma cells against MPP+. PMID: 25469469
  23. Knockdown of Gadd45a gene abolished the G2/M arrest. PMID: 25450267
  24. High GADD45A expression is associated with response to low intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease. PMID: 25449331
  25. results for the first time demonstrate that nucleolin-SUMO at K294R plays a critical role in its nucleus sequestration and gadd45alpha mRNA binding activity. PMID: 25561743
  26. Individuals carrying the GADD45Ars532446 genotype were at higher risk for chromosomal damage compared with the wild type genotype. PMID: 24464562
  27. DNA damage-inducible transcript 1 protein(Gadd45alpha) may be involved in human trophoblast migration and invasion and may function as an important negative regulator at the foetal-maternal interface during early pregnancy PMID: 24755561
  28. Results show TARID binds to the TCF21 promoter and recruits GADD45A and TDG to direct base excision repair for demethylation. PMID: 25087872
  29. the present results revealed, for the first time, that Hes-1 could be SUMO-modified by PIAS1 and GADD45alpha is a novel target of Hes-1 PMID: 24894488
  30. Expression of cell cycle regulatory factors hus1, gadd45a, rb1, cdkn2a and mre11a correlates with expression of clock gene per2 in human colorectal carcinoma tissue. PMID: 24062075
  31. we conclude that repair, together with Gadd45 and MDM2 genes, were involved in light and dark reaction mechanisms. PMID: 24177565
  32. the promotion of base excision repair activity by a p53-dependent pathway is mediated by an interaction between Gadd45a, PCNA and APE1 in the presence of organic selenium that results in increased APE1 activity PMID: 23846616
  33. Gadd45a, encodes a ubiquitously expressed protein that is often induced by DNA damage and other stress signals associated with growth arrest and apoptosis. (Review) PMID: 24104470
  34. The gadd45a gene has both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter functions, dependent on the tissue/cell type and transforming event. (Review) PMID: 24104471
  35. The Gadd45A protein is a stress sensor in preeclampsia. PMID: 24104476
  36. Gadd45a levels are significantly associated with hormone receptor status in human breast cancer PMID: 23706118
  37. The absolute mRNA content of paraffin embedded samples of salivary gland cancer was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using specific primers for NFkB1, GADD45A and JNK1. PMID: 23603344
  38. Methylation-mediated repression of GADD45A expression is associated with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. PMID: 23616123
  39. Data indicate that salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) demethylation in Sjogren's syndrome (SS)patients was associated with a 7-fold decrease in DNA methyl transferase DNMT1 and a 2-fold increase in Gadd45-alpha expression. PMID: 23478041
  40. GADD45A hyper-methylation may be detecting a broader epigenetic phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 23187294
  41. The expressions of p21(Cip1/WAF1), Gadd45alpha and p53 are associated with the clinicopathologic features and prognosis in breast cancer. PMID: 23158659
  42. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding site on Gadd45alpha plays a critical role in modulating the interaction with PCNA and APE1, affecting base excision repair. PMID: 23485469
  43. reduced Gadd45alpha protein expression by forced miR-499 expression indicated it's a diabetes-associated gene which might potentially be involved in both DCM and DM-induced baroreflex dysfunction PMID: 23227140
  44. The expression of Gadd45a in normal, developing brain is tightly regulated. PMID: 22970179
  45. To examine the functions of Gadd45a in cell invasion and metastasis, we performed the adhesion, wound-healing and transwell assays in Gadd45a (+/+) and Gadd45a (-/-) MEF cell lines. PMID: 22825327
  46. Hepatitis C virus NS5A repressed p53 expression, which was followed by a subsequent decrease in GADD45alpha expression, which triggered cellular proliferation. PMID: 23114628
  47. The induction of Gadd45a in response to preeclampsia stresses was associated with the activation of its downstream effectors phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK. Soluble Flt-1 levels were subsequently regulated through one of these effectors, but not both. PMID: 22718299
  48. the effect of APRIL is mediated via BCMA, which does not activate the classical NF-kappaB pathway, whereas it induces a novel signaling pathway, which involves JNK2 phosphorylation, FOXO3A activation, and GADD45 transcription PMID: 23071284
  49. Estrogen receptor beta causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inactivating CDK1 through the repression of cyclin B1 and stimulation of GADD45A and BTG2 expression. PMID: 21120602
  50. [review] Decreased inducibility of Gadd45 members has far-reaching consequences including genome instability, DNA damage, and disorders in cellular homeostasis, which contribute to the aging process and age-related disorders. PMID: 21986581


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Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying can preserve the activity of the majority of proteins. It improves protein stability, extends storage time, and reduces shipping costs. However, freeze-drying can also lead to the loss of the active portion of the protein and cause aggregation and denaturation issues. Nonetheless, these adverse effects can be minimized by incorporating protective agents such as stabilizers, additives, and excipients, and by carefully controlling various lyophilization conditions.

Commonly used protectant include saccharides, polyols, polymers, surfactants, some proteins and amino acids etc. We usually add 8% (mass ratio by volume) of trehalose and mannitol as lyoprotectant. Trehalose can significantly prevent the alter of the protein secondary structure, the extension and aggregation of proteins during freeze-drying process; mannitol is also a universal applied protectant and fillers, which can reduce the aggregation of certain proteins after lyophilization.

Our protein products do not contain carrier protein or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and sucrose, etc., and when lyophilized with the solution with the lowest salt content, they often cannot form A white grid structure, but a small amount of protein is deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible transparent protein layer.

Reminder: Before opening the tube cap, we recommend that you quickly centrifuge for 20-30 seconds in a small centrifuge, so that the protein attached to the tube cap or the tube wall can be aggregated at the bottom of the tube. Our quality control procedures ensure that each tube contains the correct amount of protein, and although sometimes you can't see the protein powder, the amount of protein in the tube is still very precise.

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